Tuberous sclerosis: literature review and case report

Montserrat Cruz, José López, Eduardo Chimenos Küstner, Ma. Eugenia Rodríguez de Rivera Campillo, M Viñas

Abstract


Tuberous sclerosis (TS) or Bourneville’s disease is a rare, multisystemic genetic disorder. It involves alterations to ectodermal and mesodermal cell differentiation and proliferation, causing benign hamartomatous tumors, neurofibromas and angiofibromas in the brain and other vital organs including the kidney, heart, eyes, lungs, skin and mucosa. It also affects the central nervous system and produces neurological dysfunctions such as seizures, mental retardation and behavior disorders. Tuberous (rootshaped) growths develop in the brain, and calcify over time, becoming hard and sclerotic, hence the name given to the disease. Although inheritance is autosomal dominant, 60-70% of cases occur through spontaneous mutations. The disease is related to some mutations or alterations in two genes, named TSC1 and TSC2. Discovered in 1997, TSC1 is located on chromosome 9q34 and produces a protein called hamartin. TSC2, discovered in 1993, is located on chromosome 16p13 and produces a protein called tuberin. The prevalence of the disease is 1/6000-10,000 live newborns, and it is estimated that there are 1-2 million sufferers worldwide. This paper presents a literature review and a family case report of a mother and two of her daughters with oral features of TS.

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