Designing and Evaluating Tutoring Feedback Strategies for digital learning environments on the basis of the Interactive Tutoring Feedback Model

Susanne Narciss



This paper describes the interactive tutoring feedback model (ITF-model; Narciss, 2006; 2008). The ITF-model conceptualizes formative tutoring feedback as a multidimensional instructional activity that aims at contributing to the regulation of a learning process in such a way that learners acquire or improve the competencies (i.e., conceptual and procedural knowledge as well as cognitive and metacognitive strategies and skills) needed to master learning tasks. It integrates findings from systems theory with recom-mendations of prior research on interactive instruction and elaborated feedback, on task analyses, on error analyses, and on tutoring techniques. Based on this multi-dimensional view of formative tutoring feedback methodological implications for designing and investigating multiple effects of feedback under multiple individual and situational conditions are described. Furthermore, the paper outlines how the implications of the ITF-model have been applied in several studies to the design and evaluation of tutoring feedback strategies for digital learning environments (e.g., Narciss, 2004; Narciss, & Huth, 2006; Strijbos, Narciss & Duennebier, 2010; Schnaubert, Andres, Narciss, Eichelmann, Goguadze, & Melis, 2011).


formative tutoring feedback, interactive instruction, digital learning

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ISSN 2013-9144


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