Explotación racional de las aguas subterráneas

EMILIO CUSTODIO

Abstract


The rational exploitation of groundwater points to obtain from the aquifers the quantity of water which is needed, with the due quality, adapted to the spatial and time circumstances, and respecting the environmental restrictions. These are not isolated goals but integrated with the full set of water resources, by taking advantage of the favourable aspects of each one and at the same time minimizing the drawbacks. This rational exploitation is based on dominantly technical considerations but other economic, social, cultural and political considerations are also of decisive influence, moreover those related to preservation of the environment. The rational exploitation needs a good knowledge of the behaviour of the aquifer systems as well as of the quantity and quality changes resulting from the different exploitation alternatives, both at general leve1 and applied to the case under consideration. This requires good information support and monitonng means, which have to be adapted and suited to the real situation. This real situation is a continuously changing one. The rational situation, besides the conventional and specific techniques needed to deal with a given case, relies on management techniques and how they are implemented in the framework of a water plan, taking into account both water quantity and quality aspects. In areas with scarce water resources, water quantity aspects tend to be the main concern of managers, but water quality aspects are equally important if irrational groundwater use is to be prevented in the near future. Lack of rationatity in aquifer water use is generally the result of poor knowledge, incorrect management, lack of solidarity, the subsidiarity principie being not applied and arrogant preference of pre-established alternatives.



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