Geology and Land-use related pattern of spring water quality. Case study from the catchments of the Malopolska Upland (S. Poland)


  • Janusz Siwek
  • Wojciech Chelmicki



Spring water chemical composition was investigated in three catchments (i.e. Pradnik, Dlubnia and Szreniawa) located within a carbonate-rock monocline from the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and constituting voluminous aquifers. The total spring water dissolved solids (TDS) displayed a concentration increase between 1974 and 1999. Using principal component analysis (PCA), the authors identified factors determining spring water chemistry. The research focused on making a distinction between the regional (large-area) and the local factors, the latter being related to the land-use in the direct vicinity of the springs. PCA yielded evidence that local sources of pollution can significantly contribute to the differentiation of spring-water chemical composition.