Late Neoproterozoic layered mafic intrusion of arc-affinity in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A case study from the Shahira layered mafic intrusion, southern Sinai, Egypt


  • M.K. AZER
  • M.A. OBEID Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, P.O.Box 63514- Fayoum, Egypt



Neoproterozoic, Arabian-Nubian Shield, Sinai, Layered mafic intrusion, Volcanic-arc


The Shahira Layered Mafic Intrusion (SLMI), which belongs to the late Neoproterozoic plutonic rocks of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is the largest layered mafic intrusion in southern Sinai. Field relations indicate that it is younger than the surrounding metamorphic rocks and older han the post-orogenic granites. Based on variation in mineral paragenesis and chemical composition, the SLMI is distinguished into pyroxene-hornblende gabbro, hornblende gabbro and diorite lithologies. The outer zone of the mafic intrusion is characterized by fine-grained rocks (chilled margin gabbroic facies), with typical subophitic and/or microgranular textures. ifferent rock units from the mafic intrusion show gradational boundaries in between. They show some indications of low grade metamorphism, where primary minerals are transformed into secondary ones. Geochemically, the Shahira layered mafic intrusion is characterized by enrichment in LILE relative to HFSE (e.g. Nb, P, Zr, Ti, Y), and LREE relative to HREE [(La/Lu)n= 4.75–8.58], with subalkaline characters. It has geochemical characteristics of pre-collisional arc-type environment. The geochemical signature of the investigated gabbros indicates partial melting of mantle wedge in a volcanic-arc setting, being followed by fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. Fractional crystallization processes played a vital role during emplacement of the Shahira intrusion and evolution of its mafic and intermediate rock units. The initial magma was evolved through crystallization of ornblende which was caused by slight increasing of H2O in the magma after crystallization of iquidus olivine, pyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase. The gabbroic rocks crystallized at pressures between 4.5 and 6.9kbar (~15–20km depth). Whereas, the diorites yielded the lowest crystallization pressure between 1.0 to 4.4Kbar (<10km depth). Temperature was estimated by several eothermometers, which yielded crystallization temperatures ranging from 835º to 958ºC for the gabbros, and from 665º to 862ºC for the diorites. Field, petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the SLMI are akin to the Egyptian layered mafic-ultramafic ntrusions of volcanic-arc setting, not ophiolitic rocks.


Abd El-Rahman, Y., Polat, A., Dilek, Y., Fryer, B.J., ElSharkawy, M., Sakran, S., 2009. Geochemistry

and tectonic evolution of the Neoproterozoic incipient arcfore-arc crust in the Fawakhir area, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt. Precambrian Research, 175(1-4), 116-134.

Abd El-Rahman, Y., Helmy, H.M., Shibata, T., Yoshikawa, M., Arai, S., Tamura, A., 2012. Mineral chemistry of the Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type Akarem Intrusion with special emphasis on amphibole: Implications for the pluton origin and evolution of subduction-related magma. Lithos, 155, 410-425.

Abdel-Karim, A.M., 2013. Petrology, geochemistry and petrogenetic aspects of Younger gabbros from south Sinai: A transition from arc to active continental margin. Chemie der Erde-Geochemistry, 73(1), 89-104.

Abdel Khalek, M.I., Abdel Maksoud, M.A., Abdel Tawab, M.A., El-Bedawi, M.A., 1994. An ophiolite-mélange complex south of Dahab, Sinai, Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, XX, 1-18.

Abdel-Rahman, A.M., 1994. Nature of biotites from alkaline, calcalkaline and peraluminous magmas. Journal Petrology, 35(2), 525-541.

Abu Anbar, M.M., 2009. Petrogenesis of the Nesryin gabbroic intrusion in SW Sinai, Egypt: new contributions from mineralogy, geochemistry, Nd and Sr isotopes. Mineralogy and Petrology, 95, 87-103.

Abu El-Ela, F.F., 1996. The petrology of the Abu Zawal gabbroic intrusion, Eastern Desert, Egypt: an example of an island-arc setting. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 22, 147-157.

Abu El-Ela, F.F., 1997. Geochemistry of an island-arc plutonic suite: Wadi Dabr intrusive complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 24, 473-496.

Abu El-Enen, M.M., 2008. Geochemistry and metamorphism of the Pan-African back arc Malhag volcano-sedimentary Neoproterozoic association, wadi Kid area, southeast Sinai, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Science, 51(4), 189-206.

Abu El-Enen, M.M., Makroum, F.M., 2003. Tectonometamorphic evolution of the northeastern Kid Belt, Southeast Sinai, Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 26, 19-37.

Abu El-Enen, M.M., Will, T.M., Okrusch, M., 2004. P-T evolution of the Pan-African Taba metamorphic belt, Sinai, Egypt: Constraints from metapelitic mineral assemblages. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 38, 59-78.

Ahmed, A.H., 2013. Highly depleted harzburgite–dunite–chromitite complexes from the Neoproterozoic ophiolite, south Eastern Desert, Egypt: A possible recycled upper mantle lithosphere. Precambrian Research, 233, 173-192.

Ahmed, A.H., Helmy, H.M., Arai, S., Yoshikawa, M., 2008. Magmatic unmixing of spinel from late Precambrian concentrically-zoned mafic-ultramafic intrusions, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Lithos, 104, 85-98.

Ali, K.A., Azer, M.K., Gahlan, H.A., Wilde, S.A., Samuel, M.D., Stern, R.J., 2010. Age constraints on the formation and emplacement of Neoproterozoioc ophiolites along the Allaqi-Heiani suture, South Eastern Desert of Egypt. Gondwana Research, 18, 583-595.

Aly, S.M., El Baraga, M.H., 1997. Geology and geochemistry of Shahira metagabbro-diorite complex, Sinai. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 20, Part I, 221-233.

Anderson, J.L., Smith, D.R., 1995. The effects of temperature and ƒO2 on the Al-in-hornblende barometer. American Mineralogist, 80(5-6), 549-559.

Andresen, A., Abu El-Rus, M.A., Myhre, P.I., Boghdady, G.Y., Corfu, F., 2009. U-Pb TIMS age constraints on the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Meatiq Gneiss Dome, Eastern Desert,

Egypt. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 98, 481-497.

Avigad, D., Gvirtzman, Z., 2009. Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian–Nubian shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence. Tectonophysics, 477, 217-228.

Azer, M.K., 2007. Tectonic significance of Late Precambrian calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism in Saint Katherina area, South Sinai, Egypt. Geologica Acta, 5(3), 255-272.

Azer, M.K., El-Gharbawy, R.I., 2011. Contribution to the Neoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Gabal Imleih, south Sinai, Egypt: Implication of post-collisional magmatism in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 60, 253-272.

Azer, M.K., Stern, R.J., Kimura, J.-I., 2010. Origin of a Late Neoproterozoic (605±13 Ma) intrusive carbonate-albitite complex in Southern Sinai, Egypt. International Journal of Earth Sciences, 99, 245-267.

Azer, M.K., Abu El-Ela, F.F., Ren, M., 2012. The petrogenesis of late Neoproterozoic mafic dyke-like intrusion in south Sinai, Egypt. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 54-55, 91-109.

Bachmann, O., Dungan, M., 2002. Temperature-induced Alzoning in hornblendes of the Fish Canyon magma, Colorado. American Mineralogist, 87(8-9), 1062-1076.

Basta, F.F., 1998. Mineralogy and petrology of some gabbroic intrusions in Sinai and the Eastern Desert, Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 21, 239-271.

Be’eri-Shlevin, Y., Katzir, Y., Whitehouse, M., 2009. Postcollisional tectono-magmatic evolution in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS): Time constraints from ionprobe U-Pb dating of zircon. Journal of Geological Society of London, 166(1), 71-85.

Be’eri-Shlevin, Y., Katzir, Y., Blichert-Toft, J., Kleinhanns, I.C., Whitehouse, M., 2010. Nd-Sr-Hf-O isotope provinciality in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield: implications for crustal evolution. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 160, 181-201.

Be’eri-Shlevin, Y., Samuel, M.D., Azer, M.K., Rämö, O.T., Whitehouse, M.J., Moussa, H.E., 2011. The Ediacaran Ferani and Rutig volcano-sedimentary successions of the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS): New insights from zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and O-Nd isotope ratios. Precambrian Research, 188, 21-44.

Beyth, M., Hrunhagen, H., Zilberfarb., A., 1978. An ultramafic rock in the Precambrian of Eastern Sinai. Geological Magazine, 115(5), 373-378.

Beyth, M., Stern, R., Altherr, R., Kröner, A., 1994. The late Precambrian Timna igneous complex, Southern Israel: evidence for comagmatic-type sanukitoid monzodiorite and alkali granite magma. Lithos, 31(3), 103-124.

Bielski, M., 1982. Stages in the evolution of the ArabianNubian Massif in Sinai. Doctoral Thesis. Jerusalem, Hebrew University, 155pp.

Blundy, T.D., Holland, J.J.B., 1990. Calcic amphibole equilibria and a new amphibole-plagioclase

geothermometer. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 104(2), 208-224.

Bogoch, R., Magaritz, M., 1983. Immiscible silicate-carbonate liquids as evidenced from ocellar diabase dykes, Southeast Sinai. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 83(3), 227-230.

Brooijmans, P., Blasband, B., White, S.H., Visser, W.J., Dirks, P., 2003. Geothermobarometric evidence for a metamorphic core complex in Sinai, Egypt. Precambrian Research, 123(2-4), 249-268.

Bryant, J.A., Yogodzinski, G.M., Hall, M.L., Lewicki, J.L., Bailey, D.G., 2006. Geochemical constraints on the origin of volcanic rocks from the Andean Northern Volcanic zone, Ecuador. Journal of petrology, 47(6), 1147-1175.

Chen, B., Tian, W., Jahn, B.M., Chen, Z.C., 2008. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages and in-situ Hf isotopic analysis for the Mesozoic intrusions in South Taihang, North China craton: Evidence for hybridization between mantle-derived magmas and crustal components. Lithos, 102(1-2), 118-137.

Claeson, D.T., Meurer, W.P., 2004. Fractional crystallization of hydrous basaltic ‘‘arc type” magmas and the formation of amphibole-bearing gabbroic cumulates. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 147(3), 288-304.

Condie, K.C., 1989. Geochemical changes in basalts and andesites across the Archean – Proterozoic boundary: identification and significance. Lithos, 23(1-2), 1-18.

Conrad, W.K., Kay, R.W., 1984. Ultramafic and mafic inclusions from Adak Island: crystallization history, and implications for the nature of primary magmas and crustal evolution in the Aleutian arc. Journal of Petrology, 25(1), 88-125.

Cox, K.G., Bell, J.D., Pankhurst, R.J., 1979. The interpretation of Igneous Rocks. London, Allen & Unwin, 450pp.

Davidson, J.P., Dungan, M.A., Ferguson, K.M., Colucci, M.T., 1987. Crust-magma interactions and the evolution of arc magmas: the San Pedro-Pellado Volcanic Complex Southern Chilean Andes. Geology, 15(5), 443-446.

Davidson, J.P., Ferguson, K.M., Colucci, M.T., Dungan, M.A., 1988. The origin of magmas from the San Pedro-Pellado Volcanic complex, S. Chile: multicomponent sources and open system evolution. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 100(4), 429-445.

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J., 1992. An introduction to the rock forming minerals. London, Longman Scientific and Technical, Second Edition, 696pp.

El-Bialy, M.Z., 2010. On the Pan-African transition of the Arabian–Nubian Shield from compression to extension: the post-collision Dokhan volcanic suite of Kid-Malhak region, Sinai, Egypt. Gondwana Research, 17(1), 26-43.

El-Gaby, S., 2007. Integrated classification and evolution of the Neoproterozoic Pan-African Belt in Egypt. The Fifth International Conference on the Geology of Africa, 1, 143-154.

El-Gaby, S., List, F.K., Tehrani, R., 1988. Geology, evolution and metallogenesis of the Pan-African belt in Egypt. In: El-Gaby, S., Greiling, R.O. (eds.). The Pan-African belt of northeast Africa and adjacent areas. Germany, Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, 17-66.

El-Gaby, S., List, F.K., Tehrani, R., 1990. The basement complex of the Eastern Desert and Sinai. In: Said, R. (ed.). The geology of Egypt. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, 175-184.

El-Gaby, S., Khudeir, A.A., Abdel Tawab, M., Atalla, R.F., 1991. The metamorphosed volcano-sedimentary succession of Wadi Kid, southeastern Sinai, Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 17, 19-35.

El-Gharbawy, R.I.A., Hassen, I.S., 2001. The late Precambrian metagabbro-diorite comlex, Wadi Melheg area, southeastern Sinai, Egypt: An active continental margin setting. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 24, 131-158.

El-Metwally, A.A., El-Aasy, I.E., Ibrahim, M.E., Essawy, M.A., El-Mowafy, A.A., 1999. Petrological, structural and geochemical studies on the basement rocks of Gabal UmZariq-Wadi Kid area, South Eastern Sinai. Egyptian Journal of Geology, 43(1), 147-180.

El-Ramly, M.F., 1972. A new geological map for the basement rocks in the Eastern and Southwestern Deserts of Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 2, 1-18.

El-Sayed, M.M., Furnes, H., Mohamed, F.H., 1999. Geochemical constraints on the tectonomagmatic evolution of the late Precambrian Fawakhir ophiolite, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 29(3), 515-533.

El Sharkawy, M.A., El Bayoumi, R.M., 1979. The ophiolites of Wadi Ghadir area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 9, 125-135.

Essawy, M.A., El-Metwally, A.A., Althaus, E., 1997. Pan-African layered mafic-ultramafic-mafic cumulate complex in the SW Sinai massif: mineralogy, geochemistry and crustal growth. Chemie der Erde, 57(2), 137-156.

Evensen, N.M., Hamilton, P.J., O’Nions, R.K., 1978. Rare earth abundances in chondritic meteorites. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 42(8), 1199-1212.

Eyal, Y., 1980. The geological history of the Precambrian Metamorphic rocks between Wadi Twaiba and Wadi UmMara, NE Sinai. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 29, 53-66.

Eyal, Y., Amit, O., 1984. The Magrish Migmatites (Northeastern Sinai) and their genesis by metamorphic differentiation triggered by a change in the strain orientation. Israel Journal

of Earth Sciences, 33, 188-200.

Eyal, M., Bartov, Y., Shimron, A.E., Bentor, Y.K., 1980. Sinai geological map, aeromagnetic map, 1:500.000. Survey of Israel.

Eyal, M., Litvinovsky, B., Jahn, B.M., Zanvilevich, A., Katzir, Y., 2010. Origin and evolution of post-collisional magmatism: coeval Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline and alkaline suites of the Sinai Peninsula. Chemical Geology, 269(3-4), 153-179.

Eyal, M., Be’eri-Shlevin, Y., Eyal, Y., Whitehouse, M.J., Litvinovsky, B., 2014. Three successive Proterozoic island arcs in the Northern Arabian–Nubian Shield: Evidence from SIMS U-Pb dating of zircon. Gondwana Research, 25(1), 338-351.

Farahat, E.S., Helmy, H.M., 2006. Abu Hamamid Neoproterozoic Alaskan-type complex, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 45, 187-197.

Furnes, H., Shimron, A.E., Roberts, D., 1985. Geochemistry of Pan-African volcanic arc sequences in SE Sinai Peninsula and plate tectonic implications. Precambrian Research, 29(4),


Gahlan, H.A., Azer, M.K., Khalil, A.E.S., 2015. The Neoproterozoic Abu Dahr ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: Petrological characteristics and tectonomagmatic evolution. Mineralogy and Petrology, 109(5), 611-630.

Genna, A., Nehlig, P., Le Goff, E., Guerrot, C., Shanti, M., 2002. Proterozoic tectonism of the Arabian Shield. Precambrian Research, 117, 21-40.

Ghoneim, M.F., Takla, M.A., Lebda, E., 1992. The gabbroic rocks of Central Eastern Desert, Egypt: A geochemical approach. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 18, 1-21.

Halama, R., Marks, M., Brügmann, G., Siebel, W., Wenzel, T., Markl, G., 2004. Crustal contamination of mafic magmas: evidence from a petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Os-O

isotopic study of the Proterozoic Isortoq dike swarm, South Greenland. Lithos, 74(3-4), 199-232.

Halpern, M., Tristan, N., 1981. Geochronology of the ArabianNubian Shield in southern Israel and eastern Sinai. Journal of Geology, 89(5), 639-648.

Hassanen, M.A., 1989. Geochemistry and petrogenetic evolution of a late Precambrian metagabbro-diorite complex, southeast Sinai, Egypt. First Conference on the Geochemistry, Alexandria University, 118-139.

Hastie, A.R., Kerr, A.C., Pearce, J.A., Mitchell, S.F., 2007. Classification of altered volcanic island arc rocks using immobile trace elements: development of Th-Co discrimination diagrams. Journal of petrology, 48(12), 2341-2357.

Helmy, H.M., El Mahallawi, M.M., 2003. Gabbro Akarem mafic-ultramafic complex, Eastern Desert, Egypt: a Late Precambrian analogue of Alaskan-type complex. Mineralogy and Petrology, 77, 85-108.

Hollings, P., Wyman, D., 1999. Trace element and Sm-Nd systematics of volcanic and intrusive rocks from the 3 Ga Lumby Lake Greenstone belt, Superior Province: evidence for Archean plume-arc interaction. Lithos, 46(2), 189-213.

Hollister, L.S., Grissom, G.C., Peters, E.K., Stowell, H.H., Sisson, V.B., 1987. Confirmation of the empirical correlation of Al in hornblende with pressure of solidification of calcalkaline plutons. America Mineralogist, 72, 231-239.

Hora, J.M., Singer, B.S., Wörner, G., Beard, B.L., Jicha, B.R., Johnson, C.M., 2009. Shallow and deep crustal control on differentiation of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic magma. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 285(1-2), 75-86.

Jiang, C.Y., An, S.Y., 1984. On chemical characteristics of calcic amphiboles from igneous rocks and their petrogenesis significance (in Chinese with English abstract). Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology, 3, 1-9.

Johnson, P.R., Woldehaimanot, B., 2003. Development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield: perspectives on accretion and deformation in the northern East African Orogen and the assembly of Gondwana. In: Yoshida, M., Dasgupta, S., Windley, B. (eds.). Proterozoic East Gondwana: Supercontinent Assembly and Breakup. Geological Society of London, 206 (Special Publications), 289-325.

Khalaf, E.A., Obeid, M.A., 2013. Tectonostratigraphy and depositional history of the Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in Kid area, southeastern Sinai, Egypt: Implications for intra-arc to foreland basin in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 73(5), 473-503.

Khalil, A.E.S., Azer, M.K., 2007. Supra-subduction affinity in the Neoproterozoic serpentinites in the Eastern Desert, Egypt: Evidence from mineral composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 49 (4-5), 136-152.

Khalil, A.E.S., Obeid, M.A., Azer, M.K., 2014. Serpentinized peridotites at the north part of Wadi Allaqi district (Egypt): Implications for the tectono-magmatic evolution of fore-arc crust. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88(5), 1801-1840.

Khedr, M.Z., Arai, S., 2013. Origin of Neoproterozoic ophiolitic peridotites in south Eastern Desert, Egypt, constrained from primary mantle mineral chemistry. Mineralogy and Petrology,

, 807-828.

Khudeir, A.A., 1995a. Chromian spinel-silicate chemistry in peridotite and orthopyroxenite relicts from ophiolitic serpentinites, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Assiut University, Bulletin of Faculty of Sciences, 24, 221-261.

Khudeir, A.A., 1995b. El-Genina El-Gharbia and El-Genina ElSharkia ultramafic-mafic intrusions, Eastern Desert, Egypt: geology, petrology, geochemistry and petrogenesis. Assiut University, Bulletin of Faculty Sciences, 2-F, 177-219.

Kröner, A., Todt, W., Hussein, I.M., Mansour, M., Rashwan, A.A., 1992. Dating of late Proterozoic ophiolites in Egypt and the Sudan using the single grain zircon evaporation technique. Precambrian Research, 59, 15-32.

Kröner, A., Krüger, J., Rashwan, A.A.A., 1994. Age and tectonic setting of granitoid gneisses in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and south-west Sinai. Geologische Rundschau, 83, 502-513.

Lambert, R.St.J., Holland, J.G., 1974. Yttrium geochemistry applied to petrogenesis utilizing calcium-yttrium relationships in minerals and rocks. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 38(9), 1393-1414.

Le Bas, M.J., 1962. The role of aluminum in igneous clinopyroxenes with relation to their parentage. American Journal of Sciences, 260(4), 267-288.

Leake, B.E., Woolley, A.R., Arps, C.E.S., Birch, W.D., Gilbert, M.C., Grice, J.D., Hawthorne, F.C., Kato, A., Kisch, H.J., Krivovichev, V.G., Linthout, K., Laird, J., Mandarino, J., Maresch, W.V., Nickel, E.H., Rock, N.M.S., Schumacher, J.C., Smith, D.C., Stephenson, N.C.N., Ungaretti, L., Whittaker,

E.J.W., Youzhi, V., 1997. Nomenclature of amphiboles: Report of the Subcommittee on Amphiboles of the International Mineralogical Association Commission on New Minerals and

Mineral Names. American Mineralogist, 82,1019-1037.

Lindsley, D.H., 1983. Pyroxene thermometry. American Mineralogist, 64, 477-93.

Loney, R.A., Himmelberg, G.R., 1992. Petrogenesis of the Pdrich intrusion at Salt Chuck, Prince of Wales Island: an early Paleozoic Alaskan-type ultramafic body. Canadian Mineralogist, 30(4), 1005-1022.

Loucks, R.R., 1990. Discrimination of ophiolitic from nonophiolitic ultramafic-mafic allochthons in orogenic belts by the Al/Ti ratio in clinopyroxene. Geology, 18(4), 346-349.

Madbouly, M.I., 1991. Petrology and geochemistry of some mafic ultramafic rocks of Sinai, Egypt. Doctoral Thesis. Cairo University, 132pp.

Madbouly, M.I., 2000. A comparative study on petrology and geochemistry of some mafic-ultramafic intrusions of the Eastern Desert and Sinai, Egypt. Doctoral Thesis. Cairo University, 262pp.

Manya, S., 2014. Geochemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic gabbros and granodiorites of the Saza area in the Lupa Goldfield, southwestern Tanzania. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 100, 401-408.

Meert, J.G., 2003. A synopsis of events related to the assembly of eastern Gondwana. Tectonophysics, 362, 1-40.

Middlemost, E.A.K., 1997. Magmas, rocks and planetary development. Cambridge, Longman, 299pp.

Miyashiro, A., 1978. Nature of Alkalic rock series. Contribution to Mineralogy and Petrology, 66(1), 91-104.

Moghazi, A.M.,1994. Geochemical and radiogenic isotope studies of some basement rocks at the Kid area, Southeastern Sinai, Egypt. Doctoral thesis. Egypt, Alexandria University, 377pp.

Moghazi, A.M., Anderson, T., Oweiss, G.A., El Bouselly, A.M., 1998. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data bearing on the origin of Pan-African granitoids in theKid area, southeast Sinai, Egypt. Journal of the Geological Society of London, 155(4), 697-710.

Moghazi, A.M., Ali, k.A., Wilde, S.A., Zhou, Q., Andersen, T., Andresen, A., Abu El-Enen, M.M., Stern, R.J., 2012. Geochemistry, geochronology, and Sr-Nd isotopes of the Late Neoproterozoic Wadi Kid volcano-sedimentary rocks, Southern Sinai, Egypt: implications for tectonic setting and crustal evolution. Lithos, 154(1), 147-165.

Morag, N., Avigad, D., Gerdes, A., Belousova, E., Harlavan, Y., 2011. Crustal evolution and recycling in the northern ArabianNubian Shield: New perspectives from zircon Lu–Hf and U–

Pb systematics. Precambrian Research, 186, 101-116.

Morimoto, N., Fabries, J., Ferguson, A.K., Ginzburg, I.V., Ross, M., Seifert, F.A., Zussman, J., Aoki, K., Gottardi, G., 1988. Nomenclature of pyroxenes. American Mineralogist, 73, 1123-1133.

Moussa, H.E., 2002. Mineral chemistry and geochemistry of some mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the South Eastern Desert and Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Geology, 46, 213-238.

Nachit, H., Ibhi, A., Abia, E.H., Ohoud, M.B., 2005. Discrimination between primary magmatic biotites, reequilibrated biotites and neoformed biotites. Comptes Rendus Géoscience, 337(16), 1415-1420.

Nisbet, E.G., Pearce, J.A., 1977. Clinopyroxene composition in mafic lavas from different tectonic setting. Contribution to Mineralogy and petrology, 63, 149-160.

Obeid, M.A., Khalil, A.E.S., Azer, M.K., 2015. Mineralogy, geochemistry and geotectonic significance of the Neoproterozoic ophiolite of Wadi Arais area, south Eastern Desert, Egypt. International Geology Review, 58(6), 687-702.

Patchett, P.J., Chase, C.G., 2002. Role of transform continental margins in major crustal growth episodes. Geology, 30(1), 39-42.

Pearce, J.A., 1983. The role of sub-continental lithosphere in magma genesis at active continental margins. In: Hawkesworth, C.J., Norry, M.J. (eds.). Continental basalts and mantle xenoliths. Shiva Publisher Limi, 230-240.

Richard, L.R., 1995. Mineralogical and petrological data processing system. Minpet Software (C), 1988-1985, Version 2.02.

Ridolfi, F., Puerini, M., Renzulli, A., Menna, M., Toulkeridis, T., 2008. The magmatic feeding system of El Reventador volcano (Sub-Andean zone, Ecuador) constrained by texture, mineralogy and thermobarometry of the 2002 erupted products. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 176(1), 94–106.

Ridolfi, F., Renzulli, A., Puerini, M., 2010. Stability and chemical equilibrium of amphibole in calc-alkaline magmas: an overview, new thermobarometric formulations and application to subduction-related volcanoes. Contribution to Mineralogy and petrology, 160(1), 45-66.

Rudnick, R.L., Gao, S., 2003. Composition of the continental crust. In: Rudnick, R.L., Holland, H.D., Turekian, K.K. (eds.). Treatise on Geochemistry. Oxford, Elsevier-Pergamon, 3, 1-64.

Schandelmeier, H., Richter, A., Harms, U., 1987. Proterozoic deformation of the East Saharan Craton in southeast Libya, south Egypt, and north Sudan. Tectonophysics, 140, 233-246.

Schmidt, M.W., 1992. Amphibole composition in tonalite as a function of pressure: an experimental calibration of the Alin hornblende barometer. Contribution to Mineralogy and

Petrology, 110, 304-310.

Shahien, M.G., 2002. Petrochemistry and petrogenesis of Kid granitoids, South Eastern Sinai, Egypt. 6th International Conference on Geology of Arab World, Cairo University, 101-118.

Shimron, A.E., 1980. Proterozoic island arc volcanism and sedimentation in Sinai. Precambrian Research, 12, 437-458.

Shimron, A.E., 1981. The Dabab mafic-ultramafic complex. A probable ophiolite of late Proterozoic (Pan-African) age. Ofioliti, 6(1), 161-164.

Shimron, A.E., 1984. Evolution of the Kid Group, southeast Sinai Peninsula: thrusts, mélanges, and implications for accretionary tectonics during the Proterozoic of the ArabianNubian Shield. Geology, 12(4), 242-247.

Sisson, T.W., Grove, T.L., 1993. Experimental investigations of the role of H2O in calc-alkaline differentiation and subduction zone magmatism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 113, 143-166.

Stern, R.J., 1981. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of late Precambrian ensimatic volcanic rocks, central Eastern desert of Egypt. Precambrian Research, 16, 195-230.

Stern, R.J., 1994. Arc assembly and continental collision in the Neoproterozoic East African Orogen: implications for the consolidation of Gondwanaland. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Science, 22, 319-351.

Stern, R.J., 2002. Crustal evolution in the East African Orogen: a neodymium isotopic perspective. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 34(3), 109-117.

Stromer, J.C., 1983. The effects of recalculation on estimates of temperatures and oxygen fugacity from analyses of multicomponent iron-titanium oxides. American Mineralogist, 68, 586-594.

Stoeser, D.W., Frost, C.D., 2006. Nd, Pb, Sr and O isotope characterization of Saudi Arabian Shield terranes. Chemical Geology, 226(3-4), 163-188.

Sun, S.S., McDonough, W.F., 1989. Chemical and isotopic systematic of oceanic basalts: implication for mantle composition and processes. In: Saunders, A.D., Norry, M.J. (eds.). Magmatic in Ocean Basins. Geological Society of London, 42 (Special Publications), 313-345.

Takahashi, E., Uto, K., Schilling, J.G., 1987. Primary magma compositions and Mg/Fe ratios of their mantle residues along mid-Atlantic ridge 29N to 73N Technical Report, A9. Institute of Studies Earth’s Interior, Okayama University Series, 1-14.

Takla, M.A., Basta, E.Z., Fawzi, E., 1981. Characterization of older and younger gabbros of Egypt. Delta Journal of Sciences, 5, 79-314.

Takla, M.A., Basta, F.F., Abdel Tawab, M.M., Khaled, A.M., 1991. The Precambrian rocks of Wadi Watir area, southeastren Sinai. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 17, 37-52.

Takla, M.A., Basta, F.F., Madbouly, M.I., Hussein, A.A., 2001. The mafic-ultramafic intrusions of Sinai, Egypt. Annals of Geological Survey of Egypt, 24, 1-40.

Wilson, M., 1994. Igneous Petrogenesis. London, Chapman & Hall, 466pp.

Wood, D.A., 1980. The application of a Th-Hf-Ta diagram to problems of tectonomagmatic classification and to establishing the nature of crustal contamination of basaltic lavas of the British Tertiary volcanic province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 50(1), 11-30.

Workman, R.K., Hart, S.R., 2005. Major and trace element composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM). Earth Planetary Sciences and Letters, 231(1-2), 53-72.

Zhang, J.–Q., Li, S.-R., Santosh, M., Wang, J.-Z., Li, Q., 2015. Mineral chemistry of high-Mg diorites and skarn in the HanXing Iron deposits of South Taihang Mountains, China: Constraints on mineralization process. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 200-214.

Zhou, Z.X., 1986. The origin of intrusive mass in Fengshandong, Hubei Province (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Petrologica Sinica, 29(1), 59-70.

Zimmer, M., Kröner, A., Jochum, K.P., Reischmann, T., Todt, W., 1995. The Gabal Gerf complex: a Precambrian N-MORB ophiolite in the Nubian Shield, NE Africa. Chemical Geology, 123(1-4), 29-51.