C and O stable isotopes and rare earth elements in the Devonian carbonate host rock of the Pivehzhan iron deposit, NE Iran
Keywords:REE geochemistry, Carbonate host rocks, C and O stable isotopes, Pivehzhan, Iron
The Pivehzhan iron deposit is located at about 80km southwest of Mashhad, NE Iran. They occur within the Devonian carbonates as lenticular and massive bodies, as well as veinlets of magnetite and iron sulphides, transformed to goethite and haematite by weathering process. The hydrothermal calcite is the most important gangue mineral, which is observed in the form of veins/veinlets and open-space filling. The iron ores are accompanied by some minor elements such as Mn, Ti, Cr, and V and negligible amounts of Co and Ni. The distribution pattern of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) normalized to Post Archean Australian Shale (PAAS), which is characterized by the upward convex, as well as the positive Eu anomalies indicate the activity of reduced and acidic hydrothermal fluids. The negative Ce anomalies of host carbonates, although slight, point to the dominance of anoxic conditions during interaction with hydrothermal fluids.
The hydrothermal calcite and quartz coexisting with the iron minerals contain principally fluid, which were homogenized into liquid phase. The homogenization temperature (TH(L-V)) and the salinity of the analysed fluid inclusions range from 129°C to 270°C and from 0.4wt.% to 9.41wt.% NaCl eq., respectively. The δ13CPDB and δ18OSMOW values ranges from -2.15‰ to -5.77‰ (PeeDee Belemnite standard, PDB) and from +19.87‰ to +21.64‰ (Standard Mean Ocean Water standard, SMOW) in hydrothermal calcite veinlets occurring with iron minerals and -0.66‰ to -4.37‰ (PDB) and +15.55‰ to +20.14‰ (SMOW) within the host carbonates, respectively.
The field relations and petrographic examination along with geochemical and isotopic considerations indicate that the Pivehzhan iron deposit was formed through replacement processes by reducing and acid fluids containing light carbon and oxygen isotopes. Variations in the physico-chemical conditions of hydrothermal fluids and their interaction with carbonates were the most effective mechanisms in the formation of this iron deposit. The potential source of iron was probably the basement magmatic rocks from which iron was leached by hydrothermal solutions.
The commercial rights of the printed and online versions of Geologica Acta are property of the UB, ICTJA, IDAEA and UAB, and Geologica Acta must be cited for any partial or full reproduction.
The opinions and conclusions stated in each article are the exclusive responsability of the authors and do not necessarily coincide with those of the above mentioned institutions UB, ICTJA, IDAEA and UAB.
Authors retain the copyright on their papers (accepted manuscript, uncorrected proof and published paper) and are authorized to post them on their own Web page or their institutional repositories. In all cases, the complete citation and a link to the Digital Object Identifier (DOI) of the article must be included.
The authors can use excerpts or reproduce illustrations of their papers in other works without prior permission of Geologica Acta provided the source of the paper including the complete citation is fully acknowledged.
Papers are distributed under the Attribution-Share Alike Creative Commons License. This license allows others to alter, remix or build upon a paper and the resulting work may be distributed under the same or similar license to this one.