Impact of three endocrine disruptors, Bisphenol A, Genistein and Vinclozolin on female rat enamel
Keywords:Endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, genistein, vinclozolin, enamel, hypomineralization, female rat.
Concerns about the potential adverse effects of endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been increasing over the last three decades. Bisphenol A (BPA), genistein (G) and vinclozolin (V) are three widely used EDs sharing similar effects.
Since populations are exposed to many diverse EDs simultaneously, we demonstrated recently their impact alone or combined on male rat tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess their effects on female rat tooth enamel in order to understand why they are differentially sensitive. Rats were exposed daily in utero and after birth to low doses of EDs during the critical fetal and suckling periods when amelogenesis takes place. Enamel of rats exposed to EDs presented opaque areas of hypomineralization. The proportion of affected rats was the highest in the groups of rats treated with BPA alone and higher in males than in females (in all the groups). Comparison of enamel key gene expression levels showed modulations of Klk4 and Enamelin in males but no significant variations in females. These findings show that female rats are less affected than males by the three EDs chosen in this study and suggest that enamel hypomineralization may differ between males and females
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