Chinese Business in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Historical Overview

Patricia Palma, María Montt Strabucchi

Abstract


This article provides a historical background of Chinese presence in Latin America and the Caribbean from the arrival of the first Chinese workers in the 1850s until the Great Depression. The objective is to demonstrate that Chinese businesses and investment in the region is far for being a recent phenomenon. Methodologically, this article explores an extensive bibliographic corpus and analyzes the International Chinese Business Directory of the World of 1913, one of the most important sources on Chinese businesses in the region. By focusing on the early migration patterns, the establishment of Chinese businesses and transnational economic networks, this article reveals how Chinese businesses were part of the urban landscapes of several Latin American and Caribbean cities, establishing historical commercial ties which continue, if in different forms, to this day.


Keywords


Chinese businesses; China-Americas relationship; China; Latin America and the Caribbean; Coolie trade.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Araujo, Marcelo. 2015. “Chineses no Rio de Janeiro: O século XX e migração em massa.” Encontros 13: 68-82. Accessed November 2, 2018.

http://www.cp2.g12.br/ojs/index.php/encontros/article/view/660

Chang-Rodríguez, Eugenio. 2015. Diásporas chinas a las Américas. Lima: Fondo Editorial Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.

Chao Romero, Robert. 2010. The Chinese in Mexico. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Conrad, Robert. 1975. “The Planters and the Debate over Chinese Immigration to Brazil, 1850-1893.” The International Migration Review 9: 41-55.

Drinot, Paulo. 2005. “Food, Race, and Working-Class Identity: Restaurantes Populares and Populism in 1930s Peru.” The Americas 62: 245-270. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi:10.1353/tam.2005.0160.

Freitas, Sonia María de. 2004. “Brasil. Desde Hong Kong a São Paulo.” In Cuando Oriente llegó a América. Contribuciones de inmigrantes chinos, japoneses y coreanos, edited by Interamerican Development Bank, 99-113. Washington, DC: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

González, Fredy. 2017. Paisanos Chinos: Transpacific Politics among Chinese Immigrants in Mexico. Oakland: University of California Press.

Goutu, Zhuang. 2013. “China’s Policies on Chinese Overseas: Past and Present.” In Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora, edited by Tan Chee-Beng, 31-41, London; New York: Routledge.

Hearn, Adrian H. 2016. Diaspora and Trust: Cuba, Mexico, and the Rise of China. London: Duke University Press.

Hearn, Adrian. 2012. “Harnessing the Dragon: Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurs in Mexico and Cuba.” The China Quarterly 209: 111–33.

Hearn, Adrian H., and José Luis León-Manríquez. 2011. China Engages in Latin America: Tracing the Trajectory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 2017. “The Chinese Presence in Cuba: Heroic Past, Uncertain Present, Open Future.” In Contemporary Chinese Diasporas, edited by Min Zhou, 349–68. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 2013. “Inclusion and Exclusion. The Chinese in Multiracial Latin America and the Caribbean.” In Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora, edited by Tan Chee-Beng, 89–107. London: Routledge.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 2010. “Indispensable Enemy or Convenient Scapegoat? A Critical Examination of Sinophobia in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1870s to 1903s.” In The Chinese in Latin America and the Caribbean, edited by Walton Look Lai and Chee- Beng Tan, 65– 102. Leiden: Brill.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 2009. “Indispensable Enemy or Convenient Scapegoat? A Critical Examination of Sinophobia in Latin America and the Caribbean, 1870s to 1930s.” Journal of Chinese Overseas 5: 55-90. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi: 10.1163/179325409X434504.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 2004a. “El Caribe. Los culiés, los tenderos y sus descendientes.” In Cuando Oriente llegó a América. Contribuciones de inmigrantes chinos, japoneses y coreanos, edited by Interamerican Development Bank, 13-34. Washington, DC: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 2004b. “México. Inmigrantes a una frontera en desarrollo.” In Cuando Oriente llegó a América. Contribuciones de inmigrantes chinos, japoneses y coreanos, edited by Interamerican Development Bank, 53-77. Washington, DC: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 1989. “Coolies, Shopkeepers, Pioneers: The Chinese of Mexico and Peru (1849-1930.) Amerasia 15 (2): 91-116. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi:10.17953/amer.15.2.b2r425125446h835.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. 1988. “Chinos comerciantes en el Perú: Breve y preliminar bosquejo histórico (1869-1924).” In Primer Seminario sobre poblaciones inmigrantes, edited by CONCYTEC, 127-135. Lima: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.

Hu-DeHart, Evelyn, and López, Kathleen. 2008. “Introduction. Asian Diasporas in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Historical Overview.” Afro-Hispanic Review 27: 9-21.

Johnson, Howard. 1983.“The anti‐Chinese riots of 1918 in Jamaica.” Immigrants & Minorities, 2 (1): 50-63. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi:10.1080/02619288.1983.9974538.

Kin, Wong, comp. 1913. International Chinese business directory of the world. San Francisco: International Chinese Business Directory Co., 1913.

Lausent-Herrera, Isabelle. 2011. “The Chinatown in Peru and the Changing Peruvian Chinese Community(ies),” Journal of Chinese Overseas. 7: 69-113. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi:10.1163/179325411X565416

Lee, Ana Paulina. 2018. Mandarin Brazil. Race, Representation, and Memory. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Lee, Erika. 2003. At America’s Gate. Chinese Immigration during the Exclusion Era, 1882-1943. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Lee-Borges, José. 2015. Los chinos en Puerto Rico. San Juan: Ediciones Callejón.

Lesser, Jeffrey. 2013. Immigration, ethnicity, and national identity in Brazil, 1808 to the present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Li, Peter, and Eva Li. 2013. “The Chinese Overseas Population.” In Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora, edited by Chee-Beng Tan, 15–28. Abingdon: Routledge.

Lin Chou, Diego. 2004a. Chile y China: inmigración y relaciones bilaterales (1845-1970). Santiago: Centro de Investigaciones Diego Barros Arana- Instituto de Historia.

Lin Chou, Diego. 2004b. “Chile. De culies a profesionales.” In Cuando Oriente llegó a América. Contribuciones de inmigrantes chinos, japoneses y coreanos, edited by Interamerican Development Bank, 35-51. Washington, DC: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Liu, Haiming. 2005. The Transnational History of a Chinese Family. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

López, Kathleen. 2013. Chinese Cubans: A Transnational. History. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

López-Calvo, Ignacio. 2014. Dragons in the Land of the Condor. Writing Tusán in Peru. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press.

McKeown, Adam. 2001. Chinese Migrant Networks and Cultural Change: Peru, Chicago, Hawaii, 1900-1936. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Montt Strabucchi, Maria. 2018. “Encuentros con la comunidad china en Buenos Aires: Un análisis de dos novelas.” Working Paper Series (WPS) de REDCAEM 4: 1–26.

Palma, Patricia, and Maria Montt Strabucchi. 2017. “La diáspora china en Iquique y su rol en la política de ultramar durante la República y el inicio de la Guerra Fría (1911-1950).” Diálogo Andino 54: 143–52. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi:10.4067/S0719-26812017000300143

Rodríguez, Humberto. 1989. Hijos del Celeste Imperio en el Perú (1850-1900): Migración, agricultura, mentalidad y explotación. Lima: Instituto de Apoyo Agrario.

Stenberg, Josh. 2012. “The Chinese of São Paulo: A Case Study.” Journal of Chinese Overseas 8: 105-122. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi:10.1163/179325412X634328

Steward, Watt. 1951. Chinese Bondage in Peru. Durham: Duke University Press.

Schiavone, Julia. 2012. Chinese Mexicans: Transpacific Migration and the Search for a Homeland, 1910-1960. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Tan, Chee-Beng. 2013. “Introduction.” In Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora, edited by Chee-Beng Tan, 1–12. Abingdon: Routledge.

Tong, Benson. 2003. The Chinese Americans. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.

Yen, Ching-hwang. 2013. “Chinese Coolie Emigration, 1845-74.” In Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora, edited by Chee-Beng Tan, 73–88. Abingdon: Routledge.

Wong, Bernard. 1978. “A Comparative Study of the Assimilation of the Chinese in New York City and Lima, Peru.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 20 (3): 335-358. Accessed November 2, 2018. doi: 10.1017/S0010417500009038




DOI: https://doi.org/10.1344/jesb2019.2.j064

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Contact: jesb@ub.edu

Indexed in:

 

REDIB, CARHUS + 2018, DOAJ, ERIH PLUS, Dialnet, Latindex, Google Scholars, RACO, MIAR, ROAD

RCUB revistesub@ub.edu Avís Legal RCUB Universitat de Barcelona