Geochemistry and provenance of the Lower Siwaliks from southwestern Kohat, western Himalayan Foreland Basin, NW Pakistan


  • K. ULLAH University of Peshawar, National Center of Excellence in Geology. P.O. Box No. 734, University Campus, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan.
  • M. ARIF University of Peshawar, Department of GeologyPeshawar 25120, Pakistan. CIIT Department of Earth SciencesAbbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
  • M. TAHIR SHAH University of Peshawar, National Center of Excellence in Geology. Peshawar 25120, Pakistan.



Sandstone, Mudstone, Chinji Formation, Miocene, Western Himalayas, Pakistan


Equivalent to the Lower Siwalik Group, the Late Miocene Chinji Formation in Pakistan consists of interbedded in-channel sandstone (SSt) and overbank mudstone (MSt) sequences. Twelve sandstone and sixteen mudstone samples from three different sections of the formation in southwestern Kohat, NW Pakistan were analyzed for major elements and selected trace elements. The Chinji sandstones are feldspathic and lithic arenites. They are mostly matrix-supported, moderately to well sorted, and contain angular to rounded framework grains. Authigenic carbonate makes up most of the matrix. The framework grains consist of abundant monocrystalline quartz, alkali feldspar, and lithic fragments with subordinate mica and trace to accessory amounts of heavy minerals including epidote, monazite, apatite, garnet, rutile, and brown hornblende. The lithic fragments consist of sedimentary, volcanic, and low-grade metamorphic rocks.The average concentration of Zr, Nb and Y, and the Ba/Sc and Ba/Co ratios in the studied samples are lower than the corresponding values for the upper continental crust (UCC) and Post-Archean Australian Shale (PAAS) indicating the presence of mafic phases in the source area(s). The high average Cr/Zr and Cr/V ratios of the investigated samples relative to UCC and PASS also support the presence of mafic lihtologies, possibly chromite and ultramafic rocks in the source region. The La/Sc and Th/Sc ratios of the Chingi samples are more like the UCC while the Th/Co and Cr/Th ratios suggest a major contribution from mafic rocks. The average percent differences of the Chinji samples from both the UCC and PAAS in terms of critical silicic to basic trace element ratios (Ba/Co, Ba/Sc, La/Co, La/Sc, Th/Co, Th/Sc, Zr/Cr, and Zr/Sc) suggest a mafic contribution of 23 to 47% (mudstone) and 56 to 69% (sandstone). The lower Th/U, Rb/Sr and Zr/Sc ratios in the studied samples than the corresponding values of the UCC and PAAS suggest negligible recycling for the sediments of the Chinji Formation. Petrographic point count data on the Chinji sandstone indicate sediment derivation from a dissected arc, suture belt, and recycled orogen corresponding to the Kohistan-Ladakh Arc, the Indus Suture Zone, and the Himalayan Tectonic units, respectively. The different source rocks identified on the basis of various petrographic and geochemical parameters occur as part of the mentioned tectonic domains.


Abbasi, I.A., 1998. Major pattern of fluvial facies and evolution of the Himalayan Foreland Basin, southeastern Kohat Plateau, Pakistan. In: Ghaznavi, M.I., Hasan, M.T., Raza, S.M. (eds.). Siwaliks of South Asia. Geological Survey Pakistan, 59-70.

Abbasi, I.A., Friend, P.F., 1989. Uplift and evolution of the Himalayan orogenic belt, as recorded in the foredeep sediments. In: Derbyshire, E., Owen, L.A. (eds.). The Neogene of the Karakoram and Himalayas. Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, 76 (Special Publications), 75-88.

Ahmad, S., Ali, F., Ahmad, I., Hamidullah, S., 2001. Geological map of the Kohat Plateau, NW Himalaya, NWFP. Pakistan. Geological Bulletin of the University of Peshawar, 34 , title page 3 pocket.

Ahmad, T., Islam, R., Khanna, P.P., Thakur, V.C., 1996. Geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic significance of the basic volcanic units of the Zildat ophiolitic melange, Indus suture zone, eastern Ladakh (India). Geodinamica Acta, 9, 222-233.

Alam, M., Alam, M.M., Curray, J.R., Chowdhury, A.L.R., Gani, M.R., 2003. An overview of the sedimentary geology of the Bengal basin in relation to the regional tectonic framework

and basin-fill history. Sedimentary Geology, 155, 179-208.

Allègre, C.J., Courtillot, V., Tapponnier, P., Wirn, A., Mattauer, M., Coulon, C., Jaeger, J.J., Achache, J., Schaerer, U., Marcoux, J., Burg, J.P., Girardeau, J., Arrnijo, R., Gariepy, C., Goepel, C., Tindong, L., Xuchang, X., Chenfa, C., Guanggin, L., Baoyu, L., Jiwen, T., Naiwen, W., Guorning, C., Tonglin,

H., Xibin, W., Wanmjng, D., Huaibin, S., Yougong, C., Ji, Z., Hongrong, Q., Peisheng, B., Songchan, W., Bixiang, W., Yaoxiu, Z., Xu., R., 1984. Structure and evolution of the Himalaya-Tibet orogenic belt. Nature, 307, 17-22.

Armstrong-Altrin, J.S., Lee, Y., Verma, S., Ramasamy, S., 2004. Geochemistry of sandstones from the Upper Miocene Kundanul Formation, southern India: implications for provenance weathering and tectonic setting. Journal Sedimentary Research, 74, 167-179.

Behrensmeyer, A. K., 1987. Miocene fluvial facies and vertebrate taphonomy in northern Pakistan. In: Ethridge, G., Flores, R.M., Harvey, M.D. (eds.). Recent Developments in Fluvial Sedimentology. Tulsa, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, 39 (Special Publications), 169-176.

Behrensmeyer, A.K., Tauxe, L., 1982. Isochronous fluvial systems in Miocene deposits of northern Pakistan. Sedimentology, 29, 331-352.

Bock, B., McLennan, S.M., Hanson, G.N., 1998. Geochemistry and provenance of the Middle Ordovician Austin Glen Member (Normanskill Formation) and Taconian Orogeny in New England. Sedimentology, 45, 635-655.

Boggs, S., 1992. Sedimentary Petrology. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 607pp.

Burg, J.P., Leyreloup, A., Girardeau, J., Chen, G.M., 1987. Structure and metamorphism of a tectonically thickened continental crust - the Yalu Tsangpo suture zone (Tibet). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, A 321, 67-86.

Burg, J.P., Chaundhry, M.N., Ghazanfar, M., Anczkiewicz, R., Spencer, D., 1996. Structural evidence for back sliding of the Kohistan arc in the collisional system of northwest Pakistan. Geology, 24, 739-742.

Butler, R., Prior, D.J., 1988. Anatomy of a continental subduction zone: The Main Mantle Thrust in North Pakistan. Geology Rundschau, 77, 239-255.

Cerveny, P.F., Johnson, N.M., Tahirkheli, R.A.K., Bonis, N.R., 1989. Tectonic and geomorphic implications of Siwalik Group heavy minerals, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan. In: Lillie, R.J., Malinconico, L.L. (eds.). Tectonics and Geophysics of the Western Himalaya. Geological Society of America, 232 (Special Papers), 129-136.

Chaudhry, M.N., Ghazanfar, M., 1990. Position of the Main Central Thrust in the tectonic framework of Western Himalaya. Tectonophysics, 174(32), 1-329.

Condic, K.C., 1993. Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting results from surface samples and shales. Chemical Geology, 104, 1-37.

Coward, M.P., 1985. A section through the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, Indus Valley, Kohistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 18, 147-152.

Coward, M.P., Windley, B.F., Broughton, R.D., Luff, I.D., Petterson, M.G., Pudsey, C.J., Rex, D.C., Khan, M.A., 1986. Collision tectonics in the NW Himalaya. In: Coward, M.P. and Ries, A.C. (eds.), Collision Tectonics. Geological Society of London, 74 (Special Publications), 19, 203-219.

Cox, R., Lowe, D.R., Cullers, R.L., 1995. The influence of sediment recycling and basement composition on evolution of mudrock chemistry in the southwestern United States. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 59, 2919-2940.

Crichton, J.G., Condie, K.C., 1993. Trace elements as source indicators in cratonic sediments: A case study from the Early Proterozoic Libby Creek Group, southeastern Wyoming. Journal of Geology, 101, 319-332.

Critelli, S., Garzanti, E., 1994. Provenance of the Lower Tertiary Murree Redbeds (Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Pakistan) and initial rising of the Himalayas. Sedimentary Geology, 89, 265-284.

Critelli, S., Ingersoll, R.V., 1994. Sandstone petrology and provenance of the Siwalik Group (northwestern Pakistan and western-southeastern Nepal). Journal of Sedimentary Research, A64, 815-823.

Critelli, S., Mongelli, G., Perri, F., Marín-Algarra, A., Martín-Martín, M., Perrone, V., Dominici, R., Sonnino, M., Zaghloul, M.N., 2008. Compositional and geochemical signatures for the sedimentary evolution of the Middle Triassic-Lower Jurassic continental redbeds from WesternCentral Mediterranean Alpine Chains. The Journal of Geology, 116, 375-386.

Cullers, R.L., 1994. The controls on the major and trace element variation of shales, siltstones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian-Permian age from uplifted continental blocks in Colorado to platform sediment in Kansas, USA. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 58, 4955-4972.

Cullers, R.L., 1995. The controls on the major and trace element evolution of shales, siltstones and sandstones of Ordovician to Tertiary age in the Wet Mountain region, Colorado, USA. Chemical Geology, 123, 107-131.

Cullers, R.L., 2000. The geochemistry of shales, siltstones and sandstones of Pennsylvanian-Permian age, Colorado, USA: implications for provenance and metamorphic studies. Lithos, 51, 181-203.

Cullers, R.L., 2002. Implications of elemental concentrations for provenance, redox conditions, and metamorphic studies of shales and limestones near Pueblo, CO, USA. Chemical Geology, 191, 305-327.

Dézes, P.J., Vannay, J.C., Steck, A., Bussy, F., Cosca, M., 1999. Synorogenic extension: Quantitative constraints on the age and displacement of the Zanskar shear zone (northwest

Himalaya). Geological Society of America Bulletin, 111, 364-374.

DeCelles, P.G., Gehrels, G.E., Quade, J., Ojha, T.P., Kapp, P.A., Upreti, B.N., 1998. Neogene foreland basin deposits, erosional unroofing and the kinematic history of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt, western Nepal. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 110, 2-21.

Dickinson, W.R., 1985. Interpreting provenance relations from detrital modes of sandstones. In: Zuffa, G.G. (ed.). Provenance of Arenites Dordrecht. The Netherlands, Reidel Publishing Company, NATO Advanced Study Institute, 148, 333-361.

Dickinson, W.R., Suczek, C.A., 1979. Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. American Association of Petroleum Geology Bulletin, 63, 2164-2182.

DiPietro, J.A., Pogue, K.R., Lawrenec, R.D., Baig, S.M., Hussain, A., Ahmad, I., 1993. Tratigraphy south of the main mantle thrust, Lower Swat, Pakistan: In: Searle, M.P. , Treloar, P.J.(eds.). Himalayan Tectonics. Geological Society of London, 74 (Special Publications), 207-220.

Dubey, N., Chatterjee, B.K., 1997. Sandstones of Mesozoic Kachchh Basin: Their provenance and basinal evolution. Indian Journal of Petroleum Geology, 6, 55-68.

Dupuis, C., Hébert, R., Dubois-Côte, V., Guilmette, C., Wang, C.S., Li, Z.J., 2006. Geochemistry of sedimentary rocks from mélange and flysch units south of the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone, southern Tibet. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 26, 489-508.

Einsele, G., 1992. Sedimentary Basins: Evolution, Facies and Sediment Budget. Berlin Heidelberg, New York, SpringerVerlag, 628pp.

Fatmi, A., 1973. Lithostratigraphic units of the Kohat-Potwar Province, Indus Basin, Pakistan. Geological Survey Pakistan Memoir 10.

Finlayson, D.P., Montgomery, D.R., Hallet, B., 2002. Spatial coincidence of rapid inferred erosion with young metamorphic massifs in the Himalayas. Geology, 30, 219-222.

Fraser, J., Searle, M.P., Parrish, R., Noble, S., 2001. Chronology of deformation, metamorphism and magmatism in southern Karakoram mountains. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 113, 1442-1455.

Gansser, A., 1964. The Geology of the Himalayas. New York, Wiley Interscience, 289pp.

Garzanti, E., Critelli, S., Ingersoll, R.V., 1996. Paleogeographic and paleotectonic evolution of the Himalayan Range as reflected by detrital modes of Tertiary sandstones and modern sands (Indus transect, India and Pakistan). Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108, 631-642.

Garzanti, E., Vezzoli, G., Ando, S., Paparella, P., Clift, P.D., 2005. Petrology of Indus River sands: A key to interpret erosion history of the Western Himalayan Syntaxis. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 229, 287-302.

George, M., Reddy, S., Harris, N., 1995. Isotopic constraints on the cooling history of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif and Kohistan arc, western Himalaya. Tectonics, 14, 237-252.

Guillot, S., Cosca, M., Allemand, P., LeFort, P., 1999. Contrasting metamorphic and geochronologic evolution along the Himalayan belt. In: Macfarlane, A., Quade, J., Sorkhabi, R.B. (eds.). Himalaya and Tibet: Mountain Roots to Mountain Tops. Geological Society of America, 328 (Special Papers), 117-128.

Hildebrand, P.R., Noble, S.R., Searle, M.P., Waters, D.J., Parrish, R.R., 2001. Old origin for an active mountain range: Geology and geochronology of the eastern Hindu Kush, Pakistan. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 113, 625-639.

Honegger, K., Dietrich, V., Frank, W., Gansser, A., Thoni, M., Trommsdorf, V., 1982. Magmatism and metamorphism in the Ladakh Himalaya (the Indus Tsangpo Suture Zone). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 60, 253-292.

Honegger, K., Le Fort, P., Mascle, G., Zimmermann, J.L., 1989. The bluechists along the Indus suture zone in Ladakh, NW Himalaya. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 7, 57-72.

Humayun, M., 1986. Petrology of the Swat Amphibolites and the development of a “Lesser Himalayan” Basin. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 19, 83-100.

Ingersoll, R.V., Bullard, T.F., Ford, R.L., Grimm, J.P., Pickle, J.D., Sares, S.W., 1984. The effect of grain size on detrital modes: A test of the Gazzi-Dickinson point counting method. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 54, 103-116.

Jan, M.Q., 1985. High-P rocks dong the suture zones around the Indo-Pakistan plate and phase chemistry of blueschist from eastern Ladakh. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 18, 1-40.

Jan, M.Q., 1988. Geochemistry of amphibolites from the southern part of the Kohistan arc, N. Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine, 52, 147-159.

Jan, M.Q., Howie, R.A., 1980. Ortho- and clinopyroxenes from the pyroxene granulites of Swat Kohistan, northern Pakistan. Mineralogical Magazine, 43, 715-726.

Jan, M.Q., Asif, M., Tahirkheli, T., Kamal, M., 1981. Tectonic subdivision of granitic rocks of north Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 14, 159-182.

Jan, M.Q., Pervez, M.K., Khattak, M.U.K., Windley, B.F., 1984. The Chilas stratiform complex: Weld and mineralogical aspects. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 17, 153-169.

Johnson, N.M., Stix, J., Tauxe, L., Cerveny, P.F., Tahirkheli, R.A.K., 1985. Palaeomagnetic chronology, fluvial processes and tectonic implications of the Siwalik deposits near Chinji Village, Pakistan. Journal of Geology, 93, 27-40.

Karim, A., 1998. Hydrogeochemistry and Isotope Systematics of the Indus River Basin. Doctoral Thesis. Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, unpublished, 210pp.

Kazmi, A.H., Rana, R.A., 1982 Tectonic map of Pakistan: scale 1:2,000,000. Geological Survey of Pakistan, Quetta. Kazmi, A.H., Lawrence, R.D., Dawood, H., Snee, L.W., Hussain, S.S., 1984. Geology of the Indus suture zone in the MingoraShangla area of Swat, N. Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 17, 127-144.

Khan, M.J., Opdyke, N.D., 1993. Position of the PaleoIndus as revealed by the magnetic stratigraphy of the Shinghar and Surghar ranges, Pakistan. In: Shroder, J.F. (ed.). Himalaya to Sea: Geology, Geomorphology and the Quaternary. London, Routledge Press, 198-212.

Kumar, R., Ghosh, S.K., Sangode, S.J., 2003. Mio-Pliocene sedimentation history in the northwestern part of the Himalayan foreland basin, India. Current Science, 84, 1006-1013.

LeFort, P., 1975. Himalayas, the collided range: Present knowledge of the continental arc. American Journal of Science, 275-A, 1-44.

LeFort, P., 1996. Evolution of the Himalaya. In: Harrison, T.M., Yin, A.(eds.). The Tectonic Evolution of Asia. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 95-109.

Malik, J.N., Nakata, T., 2003. Active faults and related Late Quaternary deformation along the northwestern Himalayan Frontal Zone, India. Annals of Geophysics, 46, 917-936.

Maluski, H., Matte, P., 1984. Ages of Alpine tectonometamorphic events in the NW Himalaya (N Pakistan) by the 40Ar/39Ar method. Tectonics, 3, 1-18.

McLennan, S.M., 1989. Rare earth elements in sedimentary rocks: Influence of provenance and sedimentary process. Reviews in Mineralogy, 21, 169-200.

McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R., 1980. Th and U in sedimentary rocks: Crustal evolution and

sedimentary recycling. Nature, 285, 621-624.

McLennan, S.M., Hemming, S., McDaniel, D.K., Hanson, G.N., 1993. Geochemical approaches to sedimentation, provenance and tectonics. In: Basu, A., Johnsson, M.J. (eds.). Processes Controlling the Composition of Clastic Sediments. Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of

America, 284 (Special Papers), 21-40.

Meissner, C.R., Master, J.M., Rashid, M.A., Hussain, M., 1974. Stratigraphy of the Kohat Quadrangle, Pakistan. USGS Professional Paper, 716-D, 89pp.

Metcalfe, R.P., 1993. Pressure, temperature and time constraints on metamorphism across the Main Central Thrust zone and High Himalayan slab in the Garhwal Himalaya. In: Treloar, P.J. and Searle, M.P. (eds.), Himalayan Tectonics. Geological Society of London, (Special Publications), 74, 485-509.

Michaelsen, P., Henderson, R.A., 2000. Sandstone petrofacies expressions of multiphase basinal tectonics and arc magmatism: Permian-Triassic north Bowen Basin, Australia. Sedimentary Geology, 136, 113-136.

Mongelli, G., Cullers, R.L., Muelheisen, S., 1996. Geochemistry of Late Cretaceous-Oligocene shales from the Varicolori Formation, southern Apennines, Italy: Implications for mineralogical, grain-size control and provenance. European Journal of Mineralogy, 8, 733-754.

Morton, A.C., Davies, J.R., Waters, R.A., 1992. Heavy minerals as a guide to turbidite provenance in the Lower Paleozoic Southern Welsh Basin: A pilot study. Geological Magazine, 129, 573-580.

Murphy, M.A., Harrison, T.M., 1999. Relationship between leucogranites and the Qomolangma detachment in the Rongbuk Valley, south Tibet. Geology, 27, 831-834.

Najman, Y., 2006. The detrital record of orogenesis: A review of approaches and techniques used in the Himalayan sedimentary basins. Earth Sciences Review, 74, 1-72.

Najman, Y., Garzanti, E., Pringle, M., Bickle, M., Stix, J., Khan, I., 2003a. Early-Middle Miocene paleodrainage and tectonics in the Pakistan Himalaya. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 115, 1265-1277.

Najman, Y., Pringle, M., Bickle, M., Garzanti, E., Burbank, D., Ando, S., Brozovic, N., 2003b. Non-steady-state exhumation of the Higher Himalaya, N.W. India: Insights from a combined isotopic and sedimentological approach. Geophysical Research Abstracts, 5 (abstr 04551).

Nakata, T., 1989. Active faults of the Himalaya of India and Nepal. Geological Society of America, 232 (Special Papers), 243-264.

Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., 1982. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of lutites. Nature, 299, 715-717.

Parrish, R. R., Hodges, K. V., 1996. Isotopic constraints on the age and provenance of the Lesser and Greater Himalayan Sequences, Nepalese Himalaya. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108, 904-911.

Perri, F., Critelli, S., Martín-Algarra, A., Martín-Martín, M., Perrone, V., Mongelli, G., Zattin, M., 2013. Triassic redbeds in the Malaguide Complex (Betic Cordillera-Spain): Petrography, geochemistry and geodynamic implications. Earth Science Review, 117, 1-28.

Pettijohn, F.J., Potter, P.E., Siever, R., 1987. Sand and Sandstone. Second Edition. New York, Springer, 553pp.

Pivnik, D.A., Wells, N.A., 1996. The transition from Tethys to the Himalaya as recorded in northwest Pakistan. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 108, 1295-1313.

Quade, J., Cerling, T.E., Barry, J.C., Morgan, M.E., Pilbeam, D.R., Chivas, A.R., Lee-Thorp, J.A., Van der Merwe, N.J., 1992. A 16-Ma record of paleodiet using carbon and oxygen isotopes in fossil teeth from Pakistan. Chemical Geology (Isotope Geoscience Section), 94, 182-192.

Rai, H., 1987. Geochemical study of volcanics associated with Indus ophiolitic melange in western Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir. Ofioliti, 12, 71-82.

Raiverman, V., 2002. Foreland Sedimentation in Himalayan Tectonic Region: A Relook at the Orogenic Process. Dehra Dun, India, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, 378pp.

Roddaz, M., Viers, J., Brusset, S., Baby, P., He´rail, G., 2005. Sediment provenances and drainage evolution of the Neogene Amazonian foreland basin. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 239, 57-78.

Ruiz, G., Diane, S., 2006. The Punjab foreland basin of Pakistan: A reinterpretation of zircon fission-track data in the light of Miocene hinterland dynamics. Terra Nova, 18, 248-256.

Sakai, H., Takigami, Y., Nakamuta, Y., Nomura, H., 1999. Inverted metamorphism in the Pre-Siwalik foreland basin sediments beneath the crystalline nappe, western Nepal Himalaya. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 17, 727-739.

Scaillet, B., France-Lanord, C., LeFort, P., 1990. BadrinathGangotri plutons (Garhwal, India): Petrological and geochemical evidence for fractionation processes in a High Himalayan leucogranite. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 44, 163-188.

Scaillet, B., Pêcher, A., Rochette, P., Champenois, M., 1995. The Gangotri granite (Garhwal Himalaya): Laccolithic emplacement in an extending collisional belt. Journal of Geophisical Research, 100, 585-607.

Schneider, D.A., Edwards, M.A., Kidd, W.S.F., Khan, M.A., Seeber, L., Zeitler, P.K., 1999. Tectonics of Nanga Parbat, Western Himalaya; Synkinematic plutonism within the doubly vergent shear zones of a crustal-scale pop-up structure. Geology, 27, 999-1002.

Searle, M.P., 1996. Cooling history, erosion, exhumation, and kinematics of the Himalaya-Karakorum-Tibet orogenic belt. In: Yin, A. and Harrison, T.M. (eds.), The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, 110-137.

Searle, M.P., Khan., M.A., Jan M.Q., Dipietro., J.A., Pogue, K.R., Pivnik, D.A., Sercombe, W.J., Izatt, C.N., Blisniuk, P.M., Treloar, P.J., Gaetani, M., Zanchi, A., 1996. Geological Map of North Pakistan and adjacent areas of northern Ladakh and western Tibet, Scale 1: 650,000.

Searle, M.P., Nobles, S.R., Hurford, A.J., Rex, D.C., 1999. Age of crustal melting, emplacement and exhumation history of the Shivling leucogranite, Garhwal Himalaya. Geological Magazine, 136, 513-525.

Seeber, L., Armbruster, J.G., 1981. Great detachment earthquakes along the Himalayan arc and long-term forecasting. In: Richards, P.G. , Simpson, D.W. (eds.). Earthquake Prediction: An International Review. American Geological Union, 4, 259-279.

Seeber, L., Gornitz, V., 1983. River profiles along the Himalayan arc as indicators of active tectonics. Tectonophysics, 92, 335-367.

Seeber, L., Armbruster, J.G., Quittmeyer, R.C., 1981. Seismicity and continental subduction in the Himalayan arc. In: Delany, F.M., Gupta, H.K (eds.). Zagros Hindu Kush Himalaya Geodynamic Evolution. Washington, D.C., American Geophysical Union, DOI: 10.1029/GD003p0215.

Sharma K.K., 1991. Petrochemistry and tectonic environment of Dras, Shyok, Khardung and Chushul volcanics of Indus Suture zone, Ladakh: A comparative study. In: Sharma, K.K. (ed.). Geology and Geodynamic Evolution of the Himalayan Collision Zone. Part 1. Pergamon Press, 133-153.

Shaw, D.M., 1968. A review of K-Rb fractionation trends by covariance analysis. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 32, 573-602.

Smith, H.A., Chamberlain, C.P., Zeitler, P.K., 1994. Timing and duration of Himalayan metamorphism within the Indian Plate, northwest Himalaya, Pakistan. Journal of Geology, 102, 493-508.

Staubli, A., 1989. Polyphase metamorphism and the development of the Main Central Thrust. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 7, 73-93.

Suczek, C.A., Ingersoll, R.W., 1985. Petrology and provenance of Cenozoic sand from the Indus Cone and the Arabian Basin, DSDP sites 211, 222 and 224. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 55, 340-346.

Tahirkheli, R.A.K., 1982. Geology of the Himalaya, Karakoram and Hindu Kush in Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 15 (Special Issue), 51pp.

Tahirkheli, R.A.K., Mattauer, M., Proust, F., Tapponier, P., 1979. The India-Eurasia suture zone in northern Pakistan: Synthesis and interpretation of data at plate scale. In: DeJong, K., Farah, A. (eds.). Geodynamics of Pakistan. Quetta, Geological Survey Pakistan, 125-130.

Taylor, S.R., McLennan, S.M., 1985. The Continental Crust: Its Composition and Evolution. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 312pp.

Thakur, V.C., 1992, Geology of the Western Himalaya. Oxford, Pergammon Press. 363pp.

Treloar, P.J., 1989. Imbrication and unroofing of the Himalayan thrust stack of the north Indian plate, north Pakistan. Geological Bulletin University of Peshawar, 22, 25-44.

Treloar, P.J., Searle, M.P. (eds.), 1993. Himalayan Tectonics. Geological Society, 74 (Special Publications), 630pp.

Treloar, P.J., Rex, D.C., Guise, P.G., Coward, M.P., Searle, M.P., Windley, B.F., Petterson, M.G., Jan, M.Q., Luff, I.W., 1989a. K/ Ar and Ar/Ar geochronology of the Himalayan collision in NW Pakistan: Constraints on the timing of suturing, deformation, metamorphism and uplift. Tectonics, 8, 881-909.

Treloar, P.J., Petterson, M.G., Jan, M.Q., Sullivan, M.A., 1996. A re-evaluation of the stratigraphy and evolution of the Kohistan arc sequence, Pakistan Himalaya: Implication for magmatic and tectonic arc building processes. Journal of the Geological Society London, 153, 681-93.

Treloar, P.J., Rex, D.C., Guise, P.G., Wheeler, J., Hurford, A.J., Carter, A., 2000. Geochronological constraints on the evolution of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, Pakistan Himalaya. In: Jan, M.Q., Khan, M.A., Searle, M.P., Treloar, P.J. (eds.). Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat Syntaxis and the Western Himalaya. Geological Society of London, 170 (Special Publications), 137-162.

Tucker, M.E., 2001. Sedimentary Petrology: An Introduction to the Origin of the Sedimentary Rocks. Third Edition. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 262pp.

Ullah, K., Arif, M., Shah, M.T., 2006 Petrography of sandstones from the Kamlial and Chinji formations, southwestern Kohat plateau, NW Pakistan: Implications for source lithology and paleoclimate. Journal of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 39, 1-13.

Valdiya, K.S., 1980. Geology of the Kumaon Lesser Himalaya. Dehra Dun, India, Wadia Institute of Himalaya, 291pp.

Valdiya, K.S., 1992. The Main Boundary Thrust Zone of Himalaya, India. Annals Tectonicae, 6, 54-84.

Valdiya, K.S., Bhatia, S.B. (eds.), 1980. Stratigraphy and Correlations of Lesser Himalayan Formations. India, Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 330pp.

White, N., Parrish, R.R., Bickle, M.J., Najman, Y.M.R., Burbank, D., Maithani, A., 2001. Metamorphism and exhumation of the northwest Himalaya constrained by U-Th-Pb analysis of

detrital monazite grains from early foreland basin sediments. Journal of the Geological Society London, 158, 625-635.

Willis, B., 1993. Evolution of Miocene fluvial systems in the Himalayan foredeep through a two kilometer-thick succession in northern Pakistan. Sedimentary Geology, 88, 77-121.

Willis, B., Behrensmeyer, A.K., 1994. Architecture of Miocene overbank deposits in northern Pakistan. Journal of Sediment Research, B64, 60-67.

Winslow, D.M., Zeitler, P.K., Chamberlain, C.P., Hollister, L.S., 1994. Direct evidence for a steep geotherm under conditions of rapid denudation, western Himalaya, Pakistan. Geology, 22, 1075-1078.

Winslow, D.M., Chamberlain, C.P., Zeitler, P.K., 1995. Metamorphism and melting of the lithosphere due to rapid denudation, Pakistan Himalaya. Journal of Geology, 103, 395-408.

Wronkiewicz, D.J., Condie, K.C., 1989. Geochemistry and provenance of sediments from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa: Evidence for a 3.0Ga old continental craton. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 1537-1549.

Wronkiewicz, D.J., Condie, K.C., 1990. Geochemistry and mineralogy of sediments from the Ventersdorp and Transvaal Supergroups, South Africa: Cratonic evolution during the early Proterozoic. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 343-354.

Yin, A., 2006. Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen as constrained by along-strike variation of structural geometry, exhumation history, and foreland sedimentation. Earth Sciences Review, 76, 1-131.

Zaleha, M.J., 1997. Intra- and extra-basinal controls on fluvial deposition in the Miocene Indo-Gangetic foreland basin, northern Pakistan. Sedimentology, 44, 369-390.

Zeitler, P.K., 1985. Cooling history of the NW Himalaya, Pakistan. Tectonics, 4, 127-51

Zeitler, P.K., Sutter, J.F., Williams, I.S., Zartman, R., Tahirkheli, R.A.K., 1989. Geochronology and temperature history of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh Massif, Pakistan. In: Lillie, R.J., Malinconico, L.L. (eds.). Tectonics of the Western Himalaya. Geological Society of America, 232 (Special Papers), 1-22.

Zeitler, P.K., Koons, P.O., Bishop, M.P., Chamberlain, C.P., Craw, D., Edwards, M.A., Hamidullah, S., Jan, M.Q., Khan, M.A., Khattak, M.U.K., Kidd, W.S.F., Mackie, R.L., Meltzer, A.S., Park, S.K., Pecher, A., Poage, M.A., Sarker, G., Schneider, D.A., Seeber, L., Shroder, J.F., 2001. Crustal reworking at Nanga Parbat, Pakistan: Metamorphic consequences of thermal-mechanical coupling facilitated by erosion. Tectonics, 20, 712-728.