Early-Middle Frasnian (Late Devonian) carbon isotope Event in the Timan-Pechora Basin (Chernyshev Swell, Pymvashor River section, North Cis-Urals, Russia)


  • Ivan S. Kotik Institute of Geology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Pervomaiskaya 54, Syktyvkar 167982, Russia
  • Andrey V. Zhuravlev Institute of Geology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Pervomaiskaya 54, Syktyvkar 167982, Russia
  • Tatyana V. Maydl Institute of Geology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Pervomaiskaya 54, Syktyvkar 167982, Russia
  • Dmitry A. Bushnev Institute of Geology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Pervomaiskaya 54, Syktyvkar 167982, Russia
  • Irina V. Smoleva Institute of Geology of Komi Science Centre of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Pervomaiskaya 54, Syktyvkar 167982, Russia




Late Devonian, Punctata Event, Carbon isotopes, Biomarkers, Conodonts


Details of the Early-Middle Frasnian boundary interval of the Pymvashor River section (Timan-Pechora Basin, Cis-Urals, in the far north of European Russia) are revealed by biostratigraphically constrained carbonate (δ13Ccarb) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) stable data. The studied interval corresponds to the lower part of the Domanik Formation, which consists of interbedded limestone and shale beds. Organic-rich black shale that lacks bioturbation and benthic organisms indicates an oxygen-depleted depositional environment. Detection of isorenieratene derivatives in organic matter indicates that anoxia was present in the photic zone during deposition. The Pymvashor River section contains δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg isotope records related to the Early-Middle Frasnian isotope Event. The similarity between the Cis-Uralian (this study) and the Chinese δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg oscillations, including the twostep pattern of the recorded major positive excursions, suggests a robust correlation of the Late Devonian Early- Middle Frasnian isotope Event and minor intra-event excursions. Magnitude of variations and values of δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb in the punctata Zone in the Pymvashor River section are minor than those observed in the North American, Polish, and Chinese successions. Such difference may reflect specific variation of the local environments.


Algeo, T.J., Lyons, T.W., Blakey, R.C., Over, D.J., 2007. Hydrographic conditions of the Devono-Carboniferous North American Seaway inferred from sedimentary MoTOC relationships. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 256, 204-230.

Bai, S.L., Bai, Z.Q., Ma, X.P., Wang, D.R., Sun, Y.L., 1994. Devonian Events and Biostratigraphy of South China. Beijing, Peking University Press, 303pp.

Baliński, A., 2006. Brachiopods and their response to the Early–Middle Frasnian biogeochemical perturbations on the South Polish carbonate shelf. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(4), 647-678.

Bazhenova, T.K., Shimanskiy, V.K., Vasil’yeva, V.F., Shapiro, A.I., Yakovleva (Gembitskaya), L.A., Klimova, L.I., 2008. Organic geochemistry of the Timan-Pechora basin (in Russian). Saint-Petersburg, All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute, 164pp.

Becker, R.T., House, M.R., Kirchgasser, W.T., 1993. Devonian goniatite biostratigraphy and timing of facies movements in the Frasnian of the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Geological Society Special Publication (London), 70, 293-321.

Belonin, M.D., Prischepa, O.M., Teplov, E.L., Budanov, G.F., Danilevskiy, S.A., 2004. The Timan-Pechora province: geological structure, petroleum potential and prospects of development (in Russian). Saint-Petersburg, Nedra, 396pp.

Belyaeva, N.V., Korzun, A.L., Petrova, L.V., 1998. The model of sedimentation of the Frasnian-Tournaisian deposits in the north-east of European Platform (in Russian). SaintPetersburg, Nauka, 154pp.

Belyaeva, N.V., Ivanov, A.O. (eds.), 2000. South Timan Field Trip Guidebook July 6-11, 2000. Supplement to Special Publication of Ichthyolith Issues 6. Published by Institute of Geology, Komi Science Centre, Uralian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 84pp.

Brand, U., Logan, A., Bitner, M.A., Griesshaber, E., Azmy, K., Buhl, D., 2011. What is the ideal proxy for Palaeozoic seawater chemistry? Memoirs of the Association of Australasian Palaeontologists, 41, 9-24.

Bushnev, D.A., Burdel’naya, N.S., Ponomarenko, E.S., Zubova, T.A. (Kiryukhina), 2016. Anoxia in the Domanik basin of the Timan-Pechora region. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 51(4), 283-289.

Bushnev, D.A., Burdel’naya, N.S., Valyayeva, O.V., Derevesnikova, A.A., 2017a. Geochemistry of Late Devonian oils of the

Timan-Pechora basin. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 58 (3–4), 332-342.

Bushnev, D.A., Burdel’naya, N.S., Zhuravlev, A.V., 2017b. Organic matter in Upper Devonian deposits of the Chernyshev Ridge. Geochemistry International, 55(6), 548-558.

Chen, J., Montañez, I.P., Qi, Y., Wang, X., Wang, Q., Lin, W., 2016. Coupled sedimentary and δ13C records of late Mississippian platform-to-slope successions from South China: Insight into δ13C chemostratigraphy. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 448, 162-178.

Connock, G.T. Nguyen, T.X., Philp, R.P., 2018. The development and extent of photic-zone euxinia concomitant with Woodford Shale deposition. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin (AAPG), 102(6), 959-986.

Didyk, B.M., Simoneit, B.R.T., Brassell, S.C., Eglinton, G., 1978. Organic geochemical indicators of palaeoenvironmental conditions of sedimentation. Nature, 272, 216-222.

Einsele, G., 1982. Limestone-marl cycles (periodites): diagnosis, significance, causes – a review. In: Einsele, G., Seilacher, A. (eds.). Cyclic and Event Stratification. Berlin, Springer, 8-53.

Einsele, G., Ricken, W., 1991. Limestone-marl alternation – an overview. In: Einsele, G., Ricken, W., Seilacher, A. (eds.). Cycles and Events in Stratigraphy. Berlin, Springer, 23-47.

French, K.L., Rocher, D., Zumberge, J.E., Summons, R.E., 2015. Assessing the distribution of sedimentary C40 carotenoids through time. Geobiology, 13, 139-151.

Gruzdev, D.A., 2017. The Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous isolated carbonate platform in the Subpolar Urals (Bol’shaya Nadota River) (in Russian). Vestnik IG Komi SC UB RAS, 4(268), 16-23.

Hartgers, W.A., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Requejo, A.G., Allan, J., Hayes, J.M., Yue Ling, Tian-Min Xie, Primack, J., de Leeuw, J.W., 1994. A molecular and carbon isotopic study towards the origin and diagenetic fate of diaromatic carotenoids. Organic Geochemistry, 22 (3–5), 703-725.

Huang, W.Y., Meinschein, W.G., 1979. Sterols as ecological indicators. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 43, 739-745.

Huck, S., Wohlwend, S., Coimbra, R., Christ, N., Weissert, H., 2017. Disentangling shallow water bulk carbonate carbon isotope archives with evidence for multi stage diagenesis: An in depth component specific petrographic and geochemical study from Oman (Mid Cretaceous). The Depositional Record, 3(2), 233-257.

Immenhauser, A., Della Porta, G., Kenter, J.A.M., Bahamonde, J.R., 2003. An alternative model for positive shifts in shallow

marine carbonate δ13C and δ18O. Sedimentology, 50, 953-959.

Johnson, J.G., Klapper, G., Sandberg, C.A., 1985. Devonian eustatic fluctuations in Euroamerica. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 96, 567-587.

Kachmashev, V.V., Ptitsyn, M.B., Afanasyeva, T.A., Trukhacheva, N.A., Oberman, N.G., Derevyanko, I.V., 1988. Report of the

Adzvinskaya Geological Survey Department for 1984-1988. Technical report (in Russian). Russia, Vorkuta, 260pp.

Koopmans, M.P., Koster, J., van Kaam-Peters, H.M.E., Kenig, F., Schouten, S., Hartgers, W.A., de Leeuw, J.W., Sinninghe Damste, J.S., 1996. Diagenetic and catagenetic products of isorenieratene: Molecular indicators for photic zone anoxia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 60, 4467-4496.

Kotik, I.S., Valyaeva, O.V., Bushnev, D.A., Zhuravlev, A.V., 2019. Organic matter geochemistry of the Domanic section along the Pymvashor river, Chernyshev swell (Timan-Pechora Basin) (in Russian). Vestnik IG Komi SC UB RAS, 9, 10-16.

Kuzmin, A.V., Yatskov, S.V., Orlov, A.N., Ivanov, A.O., 1997. “Domanik Crisis” in the Evolution of Fauna of the Frasnian Marine Basin in the South Timan. Paleontological Journal, 31(3), 251-258.

Lantzsch, H., Roth, S., Reijmer, J.J.G., Kinkel, H., 2007. Sea-level related resedimentation processes on the northern slope of Little Bahama Bank (Middle Pleistocene to Holocene). Sedimentology, 54(6), 1307-1322.

Lash, G.G., 2019. A global biogeochemical perturbation during the Middle Frasnian punctata Event: evidence from muted

carbon isotope signature in the Appalachian Basin, New York State (USA). Global and Planetary Change, 177, 239-254.

Lohmann, K.C., 1988. Geochemical patterns of meteoric diagenetic systems and their application to studies of paleokarst. In: James, N.P., Choquette, P.W. (eds.). Paleokarst. Berlin, Springer, 58-80.

Ma, X.-P., Becker, R.T., Li, H., Sun, Y.-Y., 2006. Early and Middle Frasnian brachiopod faunas and turnover on the South China

shelf. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(4), 789-812.

Ma, X.-P., Wang, Ch.-Y., Racki, G., Racki, M., 2008. Facies and geochemistry across the Early–Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) on South China carbonate shelf: Comparison with the Polish reference succession. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 269, 130-151.

Marynowski, L., Filipiak, P., Pisarzowska, A., 2008. Organic geochemistry and palynofacies of the Early–Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian) of the Holy Cross Mts, southern Poland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 269, 152-165.

Moldowan, J.M., Seifert, W.K., Gallegos, E.J., 1985. Relationship between petroleum composition and depositional environment of petroleum source rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), 69 (Bulletin), 1255-1268.

Morrow, J.R., Sandberg, C.A., Malkowski, K., Joachimski, M.M., 2009. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy and precise dating of middle Frasnian (lower Upper Devonian) Alamo Breccia, Nevada, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 282, 105-118.

Nikonov, N.I., Bogatskii, V.I., Martynov, A.V., Larionov, Z.V., Laskin, V.M., Galkona, L.V., Dovzhikova, E.G., Ermakova, O.L., Kostygova, P.K., Kuranova, T.I., Moskalenko, K.A., Pankratov, Yu.A., Petrenko, E.L., Popova, E.V., Surina, A.I., Shabanova, G.A., 2000. The Timan-Pechora Sedimentation Basin: Atlas of Geologic, Lithofacies, Structural and Paleogeographic maps (in Russian). Ukhta, Timan-Pechora Research Center, 64pp.

Parmusina, L.V., 2007. The Upper Devonian complex of the Timan-Pechora Province (structure, formation conditions, regularities of reservoir location and oil and gas potential) (in Russian). Saint-Petersburg, Nedra, 152pp.

Pershina, A.I., 1962. Silurian and Devonian deposits of the Chernyshev Swell (in Russian). Saint-Petersburg, Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union, 122pp.

Peters, K.E., Moldowan, J.M., 1991. Effects of source, thermal maturity, and biodegradation on the distribution and isomerization of homohopanes in petroleum. Organic Geochemistry, 17, 47-61.

Peters, K.E., Walters, C.C., Moldowan, J.M., 2005. The biomarker guide. Volume 2: Biomarkers and isotopes in petroleum systems and Earth history. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2nd edition, 1155pp.

Pisarzowska, A., Sobstel, M., Racki, G., 2006. Conodont−based event stratigraphy of the Early-Middle Frasnian transition on the South Polish cabonate shelf. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51, 609-646.

Pisarzowska, A., Becker, R.T., Aboussalam, Z.S., Szczerba, M., Sobień, K., Kremer, B., Owocki, K., Racki, G., 2020. Middlesex/punctata event in the Rhenish Basin (Padberg section, Sauerland, Germany) – Geochemical clues to the early-middle Frasnian perturbation of global carbon cycle. Global and Planetary Change, 191, 1-14.

Pisarzowska, A., Racki, G., 2012. Isotopic chemostratigraphy across the Early–Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian)

on the South Polish carbonate shelf: A reference for the global punctata Event. Chemical Geology, 334, 199-220.

Poludetkina, E.N., Smirnov, M.B, Fadeeva, N.P., Kozlova, E.V., 2017. Proof of formation of organic matter in Upper Devonian

carbonate and carbonate-siliceous sediments of the SouthTatar Uplift in constant photic layer anoxia. Geochemistry International, 55(8), 726-736.

Racka, M., Marynowski, L., Filipiak, P., Sobstel, M., Pisarzowska, A., Bond, D.P.J., 2010. Anoxic Annulata Events in the Late Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains (Southern Poland): geochemical and paleontological record. Palaeogeography,

Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 297, 549-575.

Racki, G., Joachimski, M.M., Morrow, J.R., 2008. A major perturbation of the global carbon budget in the Early– Middle Frasnian transition (Late Devonian). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 269, 127-129.

Rau, G.H., Takahashi, T., Marais, D.J.D., 1989. Latitudinal variations in plankton δ13C: implications for CO2 and productivity inpast oceans. Nature, 341(6242), 516-518.

Romero, A.M., Philp, R.P., 2012. Organic geochemistry of the Woodford Shale, Southeastern Oklahoma: How variable can shales be? American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), 96 (Bulletin), 493-517.

Scholle, P.A., Arthur, M.A., 1980. Carbon isotope fluctuations in Cretaceous pelagic limestones: Potential stratigraphic and petroleum exploration tool. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), 64 (Bulletin), 67-87.

Śliwiński, M.G., Whalen, M.T., Newberry, R.J., Payne, J.H., Day, J.E., 2011. Stable isotope (δ13Ccarb and org, δ15Norg) and trace element anomalies during the Late Devonian ‘punctata Event’ in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 307, 245-271.

Soboleva, M.A., Sobolev, D.B., Matveeva, N.A., 2018. Frasnian section on the Kozhym River (the western slope of Polar Urals)

– results of biostratigraphic, bio- and lithofacies, isotopic and geochemical studies (in Russian). Petroleum Geology– Theoretical and Applied Studies, 13(1). Last accessed: 21/03/2021. Website: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/2/2_2018.pdf

Timonin, N.I., 1998. Pechora Plate: a history of geological evolution in the Phanerozoic (in Russian). Ekaterinburg, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 240pp.

Tissot, B.P., Welte, D.H., 1984. Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, second edition. Berlin, Heidelberg, SpringerVerlag, 699pp.

Tsyganko, V.S., 2011. Devonian of the Western slope of the Northern Urals and Pay-Khoy (stratigraphy, separation principles, correlation) (in Russian). Ekaterinburg, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 356pp.

van der Meer, M.T.J., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., 1998. The effect of the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle on the 13C contents of bacterial lipids. Organic Geochemistry, 27, 371-397.

Volkman, J.K., 1986. A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter. Organic Geochemistry, 9, 83-99.

Waples, D.W., Machihara, T., 1991. Biomarkers for geologist – a practical guide to the application of steranes and triterpanes in petroleum geology. American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), Methods in Exploration, 71pp.

Ward, C.L., McCann, K.S., 2017. A mechanistic theory for aquatic food chain length. Nature Communications, 8, 2028.

Wu, F.-Y., Arzamastsev, A.A., Mitchell, R.H., Li, Q.-L., Sun, J., Yang, Y.-H., Wang, R.-C., 2013. Emplacement age and Sr-Nd

isotopic compositions of the Afrikanda alkaline ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Chemical Geology, 353, 210-229.

Yans, J., Corfield, R.M., Racki, G., Preat, A., 2007. Evidence for perturbation of the carbon cycle in the Middle Frasnian punctata Zone (Late Devonian). Geological Magazine, 144(2), 263-270.

Yudin, V.V., 1994. Orogenesis of the North Urals and Pay-Khoy (in Russian). Ekaterinburg, Nauka, 284pp.

Zhuravlev, A.V., Sokiran, E.V., Evdokimova, I.O., Dorofeeva, L.A., Rusetskaya, G.A., Małkowski, K., 2006. Faunal and facies changes at the Early-Middle Frasnian boundary in the north-western East European Platform. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 51(4), 747-758.

Zhuravlev, A.V., Smoleva, I.V., 2018. Carbon isotope values in conodont elements from the latest Devonian-Early Carboniferous carbonate platform facies (Timan-Pechora Basin). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 67(4), 238-246.

Zhuravlev, A.V., 2020. Thermal degradation of carbon isotope composition of conodont organic matter: preliminary results

(in Russian). Vestnik of Geosciences, 2, 29-31.

Zhuravlev, A.V., Plotitsyn, A.N., Gruzdev, D.A., 2020. Carbon isotope ratios in the apatite-protein composites of conodont

elements – palaeobiological proxy. In: Frank-Kamenetskaya, O.V., Vlasov, D.Y., Panova, E.G., Lessovaia, S.N. (eds.). Processes and Phenomena on the Boundary between Biogenic and Abiogenic Nature. Springer Nature Switzerland, 749-764.

Ziegler, W., Sandberg, C.A., 2001. Utility of palmatolepids and icriodontids in recognizing Upper Devonian series, stage, and

possible substage boundaries.