Preferred Channel Choices in Vegetable Marketing: Role of Macro and Micro Environmental Factors in Odisha
Keywords:Market channel choice, agriculture, vegetable, macro factors, micro factors, SEM
The globalization of agriculture has opened new opportunities, challenges and stiffer competition in India. This paper explores and evaluates various macro and micro factors influencing the marketing channel choices made by the vegetable farmers in Odisha. Responses were collected from 323 vegetable farmers and 110 commission agents, and 192 retailers across five districts of Odisha. Data were analyzed using SPSS to confirm reliability, validity and data reduction. AMOS was used to design the structural equation model. Access to market knowledge has a positive sign for both organized and unorganized market choices, which is consistent with the hypothesis. Hence, the value suggests that increasing market knowledge can increase market participation. The improvement in practices and expertise in grading also shows an increase in the involvement of both organized and unorganized markets. Given these marketing challenges, this study suggests improving emerging farmers' participation in the export markets.
Agarwal, Bina, and Ankush Agrawal. 2017. “Do Farmers Really like Farming? Indian Farmers in Transition.” Oxford Development Studies 45(4):460–78. doi:10.1080/13600818.2017.1283010.
Aggarwal, Nidhi, and Sudha Narayanan. 2021. “Impact of India’s Demonetization on Domestic Agricultural Markets.” Available at SSRN:10.2139/ssrn.3066042.
Akhilesh, K. B., and Kavitha Sooda. 2020. “A Study on Impact of Technology Intervention in the Field of Agriculture in India.” In Smart Technologies: Scope and Applications, edited by K.B. Akhilesh and Dietmar P.F. Möller, 373–85. Singapore: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-7139-4_28.
Ali, Jabir. 2016. “Adoption of Innovative Agricultural Practices across the Vegetable Supply Chain.” International Journal of Vegetable Science 22(1):14–23. doi:10.1080/19315260.2014.916773.
Anesbury, Zachary William, Danielle Talbot, Chanel Andrea Day, Tim Bogomolov, and Svetlana Bogomolova. 2020. “The Fallacy of the Heavy Buyer: Exploring Purchasing Frequencies of Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Categories.” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 53:101976. doi:10.1016/j.jretconser.2019.101976.
Azad, M. J., M. S. Ali, M. R. Islam, M. Yeasmin, and K. H. Pk. 2014. “Problem Perceived by the Farmers in Vegetable Cultivation.” Journal of Experimental Bioscience 5(2):63–68.
Cadilhon, Jean-Joseph, Andrew P. Fearne, Paule Moustier, and Nigel D. Poole. 2003. “Modelling Vegetable Marketing Systems in South East Asia: Phenomenological Insights from Vietnam.” Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 8(5):427-441. doi:10.1108/13598540310500268.
Chalise, Sudarshan, Athula Naranpanawa, Jayatilleke S. Bandara, and Tapan Sarker. 2017. “A General Equilibrium Assessment of Climate Change–Induced Loss of Agricultural Productivity in Nepal.” Economic Modelling 62:43–50. doi:10.1108/13598540310500268.
Chatha, I. S., and J. L. Kaul. 1982. “Study into the Price Behaviour and Marketing Margins of Potato in Punjab.” Agricultural Marketing 20(1):21-24. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201302526931.
Child, John. 2015. Organization: Contemporary Principles and Practice. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons.
Cronbach, Lee J. 1951. “Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests.” Psychometrika 16(3):297-334. doi:10.1007/BF02310555.
Deogharia, Prakash Chandra. 2017. “Vegetable Marketing in Jharkhand: A Micro Study of Marketable and Marketed Surplus of Selected Vegetables.” Jharkhand Journal of Development and Management Studies 15(4):7493–7505.
Devaraja, T. S. 2000. “Producer vs Consumer Price Parity for Vegetables in Rural and Urban Markets of Southern Karnataka.” Agriculture Today (India).
Devkota, R., and K. D. Sharma. 2014. “Conduct and Performance of Vegetable Marketing System in Kangra District of Himachal Pradesh in India.” International Journal of Agricultural Innovation and Research 3:737–44.
Fornell, Claes, and David F. Larcker. 1981. “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error.” Journal of Marketing Research 18(1):39–50. doi:10.1177/002224378101800104.
Gandhi, Vasant P., and N. V. Namboodiri. 2002. “Fruit and Vegetable Marketing and Its Efficiency in India: A Study of Wholesale Markets in the Ahmedabad.” Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department. IIMA Working Papers WP2002-12-05 https://ideas.repec.org/p/iim/iimawp/wp00056.html.
Gorsuch, Richard L. 1990. “Common Factor Analysis versus Component Analysis: Some Well and Little Known Facts.” Multivariate Behavioral Research 25(1):33–39. doi:10.1207/s15327906mbr2501_3.
Hair, Joseph F. 2009. “Multivariate Data Analysis.” https://digitalcommons.kennesaw.edu/facpubs/2925/
Hair, Joseph F., Christian M. Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt. 2013. “Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling: Rigorous Applications, Better Results and Higher Acceptance.” Long Range Planning 46(1-2): 1-12. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2233795.
Hernández, Ricardo, Thomas Reardon, and Julio Berdegué. 2007. “Supermarkets, Wholesalers, and Tomato Growers in Guatemala.” Agricultural Economics 36(3):281–90. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2007.00206.x.
ICAR, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. 2001. Report. 2001. Accessed 19 May 2023. https://icar.org.in/files/icar2001.pdf,
Kehoe, Sarah H., Varsha Dhurde, Shilpa Bhaise, Rashmi Kale, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Aulo Gelli, R. Rengalakshmi, Sirazul A. Sahariah, Ramesh D. Potdar, and Caroline HD Fall. 2019. “How Do Fruit and Vegetable Markets Operate in Rural India? A Qualitative Study of the Impact of Supply and Demand on Nutrition Security.” Food and Nutrition Bulletin 40(3):369-82. doi:10.1177/0379572119846809.
Khanal, Saugat, and Mamata Shrestha. 2019. “Agro-Tourism: Prospects, Importance, Destinations and Challenges in Nepal.” Archives of Agriculture and Environmental Science 4(4):464-71. doi:10.26832/24566632.2019.0404013.
Kiresur, V. R., K. C. Hiremath, and Sharda Kiresur. 1989. “Economics of Production and Marketing of Vegetables in Karnataka-A Comparison Between Organised and Unorganised Sectors of Marketing.” Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing 3(3):98.
Kumar, Shailesh, M. L. Roy, and Anirban Mukherjee. 2018. “Marketing Behaviour of Vegetable Growers in Uttarakhand Hills.” Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable Development 13(1):68-74. http://krishi.icar.gov.in/jspui/handle/123456789/59133.
Larose, Daniel T. 2015. Data Mining and Predictive Analytics. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Leedy, Paul D., Jeanne Ellis Ormrod, and Laura Ruth Johnson. 2014. Practical Research: Planning and Design. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Mandal, Subhasis, D. Burman, U. K. Mandal, T. D. Lama, B. Maji, and P. C. Sharma. 2017. “Challenges, Options and Strategies for Doubling Farmers’ Income in West Bengal–Reflections from Coastal Region.” Agricultural Economics Research Review 30(conf):89-100. doi:10.5958/0974-0279.2017.00024.6.
Mather, Charles, and Asghar Adelzadeh. 1998. “Macroeconomic Strategies, Agriculture and Rural Poverty in Post-Apartheid South Africa.” Africa Insight 28(1–2):25-35. https://www.africabib.org/rec.php?RID=19166832X.
Midmore, David J., and Hans GP Jansen. 2003. “Supplying Vegetables to Asian Cities: Is There a Case for Peri-Urban Production?” Food Policy 28(1):13–27. doi:10.1016/S0306-9192(02)00067-2.
Mishra, Dibya, and Rajeev Kumar Panda. 2021. “How Delightful Is Indian Wellness Tourism? A Netnographic Study.” Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research (AHTR) 9(1):132-156. doi:10.30519/ahtr.784232.
Mohandoss, V., and K. V. Subrahmanyam. 1979. “Study of Fruits and Vegetables’ Cold Store Units: A Comparative Performance of Different Agencies.” Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 34(4):179–185.
Mohapatra, Shruti, Upasana Mohapatra, and Raj Kishore Mishra. 2017. “Diversification towards Vegetable Crops: A Good Option for Doubling the Farmer’s Income.” Journal of Experimental Agriculture International, 18(4): 1-7. doi:10.9734/JEAI/2017/37379.
Mukherjee, Anirban, Premlata Singh, Rajarshi Roy Burman, Kumari Shubha, and Manik Lal Roy. 2018. “Development of Test to Measure Knowledge Level of Farmers Producer Organization Members about Improved Hill Agricultural Practices.” Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainable Development 14(1):57-64. https://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jcmsd&volume=14&issue=1&article=011.
Mysore, Sudha. n.d. “Estimating Marketing Efficiency Of Selected Horticultural Commodities along Different Supply Chains.” Estimation of Marketing Efficiency of Horticultural Commodities under Different Supply Chains in India, 120-167. https://krishi.icar.gov.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/806/1/new.pdf#page=120.
“Report of the National Commission on Agriculture, 1976.” n.d. INDIAN CULTURE. Accessed May 19, 2023. http://indianculture.gov.in/reports-proceedings/report-national-commission-agriculture-1976-5.
Nedumaran, G. 2020. “E-Agriculture and Rural Development in India.” Available at SSRN. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3551994.
Negi, Saurav, and Neeraj Anand. 2015. “Cold Chain: A Weak Link in the Fruits and Vegetables Supply Chain in India.” IUP Journal of Supply Chain Management 12(1):48.
Nunnally, Bernstein, and I. R. Bernstein. 1994. Psychometric Theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nunnally, Jum C. 1978. “An Overview of Psychological Measurement.” In Clinical Diagnosis of Mental Disorders: A Handbook, edited bya B.B. Wolman, 97–146. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-2490-4_4.
O’Leary-Kelly, Scott W., and Robert J. Vokurka. 1998. “The Empirical Assessment of Construct Validity.” Journal of Operations Management 16(4):387–405. doi:10.1016/S0272-6963(98)00020-5.
Panda, Rajeev Kumar and Sreekumar. 2012. “Marketing Channel Choice and Marketing Efficiency Assessment in Agribusiness.” Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing 24(3):213–30. doi:10.1080/08974438.2012.691812.
Parthasarathy, P. B., V. Rammohan, and P. K. Hemachandra. 1988. “Price Behavior of Vegetables in Hyderabad Markets.” Indian Journal of Agricultural Marketing 2(1):124–85.
Ramamurthy, K., V. Rajagopalan, and S. Varadarajan. 1984. “Structure, Conduct and Performance of Tomato Marketing in Coimbatore.” Indian Journal of Marketing 14(5).
Sarkar, Barsha, Debabrata Basu, Hiralal Jana, and Aditya Sinha. 2021. “Analysis of Marketing Efficiency of Prominent Vegetable Marketing Channels in Nadia District of West Bengal.” Journal of Community Mobilization and Sustainablity Development 16(1):88-96. https://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:jcmsd&volume=16&issue=1&article=014.
Sen, C., and R. P. Maurya. 1998. “Marketing of Vegetables in Sewapuri Block.” Agricultural Marketing Delhi 41:29–31.
Singh, Ritesh Kumar, Michiel Aernouts, Mats De Meyer, Maarten Weyn, and Rafael Berkvens. 2020. “Leveraging LoRaWAN Technology for Precision Agriculture in Greenhouses.” Sensors 20(7):1827. doi:10.3390/s20071827.
Singh, Samsher, and S. K. Chauhan. 2004. “Marketing of Vegetables in Himachal Pradesh.” Agricultural Marketing-Delhi 47(3):5.
Singh, Sukhpal. 2019. “Re-Organising Agricultural Markets for Doubling Farmer Incomes in India: Relevance, Mechanisms and Role of Policy.” Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics 74(3):390–407. https://isaeindia.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/07-Article-Sukhpal-Singh.pdf.
Singla, Gisha, Kartikey Chaturvedi, and Pankaj Preet Sandhu. 2020. “Status and Recent Trends in Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables.” In Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables, edited by Mohammed Wasim Siddiqui, 17–49. London: Elsevier.
Singla, Naresh. 2017. “Innovations in Agricultural Marketing in India: A Case Study of Supermarket in Punjab.” In Financing Agriculture Value Chains in India: Challenges and Opportunities, edited by Gyanendra Mani, P.K. Joshi and M.V. Ashok, 109–23. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-5957-5_6.
Somashekhar, I. C., J. K. Raju, and H. Patil. 2014. “Agriculture Supply Chain Management: A Scenario in India.” Research Journal of Social Science and Management 4(07):89–99.
Sood, A. K., and B. M. Singh. 1993. “Prevalence of Bacterial Wilt of Solanaceous Vegetables in the Mid-Hill Subhumid Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India.” In Aciar Proceedings, 358–358. Australian Centre For International Agricultural Research.
Subrahmanyam, K. V. 1982. “Economics of Production and Marketing of Important Vegetable in Karnataka.” The Lal-Baugh 27(2):7–16. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=IN8203473.
Subrahmanyam, KV. n.d. “Marketing of Horticultural Crops in India.” Encyclopaedia of Agricultural Marketing 8: 1.
Sureshchandar, G. S., Chandrasekharan Rajendran, and R. N. Anantharaman. 2002. “The Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction–a Factor Specific Approach.” Journal of Services Marketing 16(4):363-379. doi:10.1108/08876040210433248.
Tilman, David. 2001. “Functional Diversity.” Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 3 (1): 109–20. https://www.cedarcreek.umn.edu/sites/default/files/public/t1797.pdf
Yadava, Thimmaraja G., and Haradagere Siddaramaiah Jayanna. 2017. “A Spoken Query System for the Agricultural Commodity Prices and Weather Information Access in Kannada Language.” International Journal of Speech Technology 20:635–44. doi:10.1007/s10772-017-9428-y.
Yankson, Paul WK, Alex Barimah Owusu, and Stephen Frimpong. 2016. “Challenges and Strategies for Improving the Agricultural Marketing Environment in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana.” Journal of Agricultural & Food Information 17(1):49–61. doi:10.1080/10496505.2015.1110030.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Evolutionary Studies in Business
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.