Multi proxy approach to evaluate and delineate the potential of hot springs in the Kotli District (Kashmir, Pakistan)
Keywords:Hot springs, Radon survey, Hydro-geochemistry, Geo-thermometry, Isotope composition, Geothermal system
Tattapani hot springs are located near the Kotli District of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. This study evaluates these hot springs based on surface geological information, radon emission measurements, hydro-geochemical and isotopic signatures and potential source mechanisms. Field observations reveal that the hot springs are located at the crest of the Tattapani anticline along the faulted contact of Cambrian carbonates with Paleocene siliciclastics. In addition, remnants of igneous intrusions in the Cambrian carbonates are commonly observed. Spatial distribution of radon emissions (ranging between 2.1 and 29.5KBq m-3) indicates an anomalous zone located over the Cambrian-Paleocene faulted contact. Hydro-geochemical data show sodium-bicarbonate affinity of hot springs. The highest surface temperature of these springs is recorded at 60.8ºC. Average reservoir temperatures based on silica and cation geo-thermometers are 101ºC and 115ºC, respectively. Giggenbach ternary diagram (Na-K-Mg) suggests a non-equilibrium state between fluid and rock, whereas isotopic and chemical data indicate heat loss by conductive cooling and mixing with groundwater during the flow of thermal water up to the surface. Oxygen and deuterium isotopes indicate that thermal water is of meteoric origin, rain and/or snow in the north at higher altitudes providing the potential recharge. Furthermore, absence of tritium in the thermal water suggests a residence time of more than 50 years.
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