Integrated approach for zonation of a mid-Cenomanian carbonate reservoir in a sequence stratigraphic framework
Keywords:Reservoir characteristics, Flow units, Sequence stratigraphy, Mishrif Formation, Sirri Field, Reservoir zonation.
The mid-Cenomanian Mishrif Formation (Fm.) is considered as one of the most important rudist-bearing reservoir horizons in the Sirri Oil Fields of the Persian Gulf. Due to the general heterogeneity of carbonate reservoirs, the use of an integrated approach is helpful for investigating porosity and permeability distribution along with recognizing controlling pore system factors in the reservoir. Thus, for the reservoir characterization of the Mishrif Fm., an integrated approach including facies analysis, diagenetic history and sequence stratigraphic analysis is considered. Detailed petrographic studies showed a total of eight microfacies and seven facies belts, related to inner ramp to the basin of a homoclinal carbonate ramp. Humid climatic condition and tectonic activity, associated with eustatic sea-level fluctuations during the mid-Cretaceous, led to meteoric diagenesis of the Mishrif carbonates during subaerial exposures (mid-Cenomanian and Cenomanian-Turonian disconformities). General diagenetic overprints and modifications include micritization, cementation, dissolution, compaction, dolomitization, pyritization and fracturing. Considering this reservoir in the sequence stratigraphic framework reveals that the reservoir zones development is basically related to the Cenomanian–Turonian sequence boundary, recognized in the three studied wells, and also to the mid-Cenomanian boundary, identified only in one well. In addition, pore system properties were inspected by differentiation of Hydraulic Flow Units (HFUs) within the reservoir. The identified flow units, based on their capability for fluid flow, can be classified into four main rock types with very high- (HFUD), high- (HFUC), medium- (HFUB) and low-quality (HFUA). Accordingly, this study shows that the main part of the Mishrif Reservoir is affected by diagenetic processes related to subaerial exposures, resulting in zones with higher storage capacity and fluid flow rates. So, the study of depositional and diagenetic characteristics of the Mishrif carbonates in the sequence stratigraphy framework is essential to unravel the reservoir heterogeneity, and to describe the reservoir zones and their distribution in the field and regional scale. In addition, observed changes in the thickness of hydrocarbon column are attributed to the different location of the studied wells on the anticline structures, which show a tilted oil-water contact with a slope to the North.
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