The Impact of Screen Time and Mobile Dependency on Cognition, Socialization and Behaviour Among Early Childhood Students During the Covid Pandemic- Perception of the Parents
Keywords:Screen Time,, Mobile Dependency, Cognition, Socialization, Behaviour, Screen Dependency Disorders
Digital technology systems are adopted rapidly throughout the globe for the virtual learning process especially with the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. Digital screen-based gadgets are integrated to provide a seamless interactive medium of learning even before the initiation of formal education. Studies on the technology use of younger children are critical as uncontrolled gadget use affects their developmental stages yet these studies are still in the infancy stage. This study analyses the psychoeducational impact of extended use of digital gadgets and mobile dependency on early childhood manifested through their cognition, socialization and behaviour. This descriptive study is based on the random responses of 511 parents about their young children of 3-6 years distributed at five civil districts of Kerala State. From the analysis, it is found that the extended use of digital gadgets influenced young children’s mobile dependency, socialization process, cognition and behaviour patterns. The young children exhibited alienation tendencies and behavioural deviations which are correlated to their screen time. Both male and female reported similar results. Significant differences were observed with respect to the age of the children and their parental characteristics. Their mobile dependency mediated their extended digital Screen Time to the Behaviour. Significant relation was predicted by extended Screen Time on Behaviour of the students with a partial sequential path through mobile Dependency, Cognition and Socialization. The study shed light on the urgency of parental care and implementation of a balanced gadget usage system to reduce the detrimental impacts of psychoeducational factors.
Agustin, R. P., Saidah, Q. I., Anggoro, S. D., Huda, N., Widayanti, D. M., Priyantini, D., ... & Nurlela, L. (2019). The Relationship Between The Use Of Gadget And Emotional Development Of Preschool Children. The Malaysian Journal Of Nursing, 11(2), 97-102.
Anderson, D. R., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2017). Digital screen media and cognitive development. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), S57-S61.
Behavior Research Network (SBRN)—Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome. International.
Bigorra, A., Garolera, M., Guijarro, S., & Hervás, A. (2016). Long-term far-transfer effects of working memory training in children with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 25(8), 853-867.
Cabré-Riera, A., Torrent, M., Donaire-Gonzalez, D., Vrijheid, M., Cardis, E., & Guxens, M. (2019). Telecommunication devices use, screen time and sleep in adolescents. Environmental research, 171, 341-347.data/file/832868/uk-chief-medical-officers-physical-activity-guidelines.pdf
Crompton, H., Burke, D., Jordan, K., & Wilson, S. W. (2021). Learning with technology during emergencies: A systematic review of K‐12 education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 52(4), 1554-1575
Domoff, S. E., Harrison, K., Gearhardt, A. N., Gentile, D. A., Lumeng, J. C., & Miller, A. L. (2019). Development and validation of the Problematic Media Use Measure: A parent report measure of screen media “addiction” in children. Psychology of popular media culture, 8(1), 2.
Felix, F., Speech, A. L., Kumaraswamy, S., Anand, H. A., Fathima, D., Sameeha, E. F., & Fida, F. (2021). Impact of Screen Time with Children 2-5 Years A Pilot Study. Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Volume 21: 11 November 2021 ISSN 1930-2940, 24.
Hu, B. Y., Johnson, G. K., Teo, T., & Wu, Z. (2020). Relationship between screen time and Chinese children’s cognitive and social development. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 34(2), 183-207.
Hutton, J. S., Dudley, J., Horowitz-Kraus, T., DeWitt, T., & Holland, S. K. (2020). Associations between screen-based media use and brain white matter integrity in preschool-aged children. JAMA pediatrics, 174(1), e193869-e193869.
Jie, Z., Sunze, Y., & Puteh, M. (2020, February). Research on Teacher's Role of Mobile Pedagogy Guided by the Zone of Proximal Development. In Proceedings of the 2020 9th International Conference on Educational and Information Technology (pp. 219-222).
Joseph, G. V., & Thomas, K. A. (2021). Integration of technology initiatives with educational neuroscience and its impact on technology readiness to technology adoption by HSS Teachers, Kerala. In Neuro-Systemic Applications in Learning (pp. 423-444). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72400-9_21
Joseph, G. V., Thomas, K. A., & Nero, A. (2021). Impact of Technology Readiness and Techno Stress on Teacher Engagement in Higher Secondary Schools. Digital Education Review, (40), 51-65. https://doi.org/10.1344/der.2021.40.51-65
Joseph, G. V., & Thomas, K. A. (2020). Moderating effect of social media usage on Technology Barriers to Technology Adoption by teachers. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(03), 5504-5512.
Limone, P., & Toto, G. A. (2021). Psychological and emotional effects of Digital Technology on Children in Covid-19 Pandemic. Brain Sciences, 11(9), 1126.
Lissak, G. (2018). Adverse physiological and psychological effects of screen time on children and adolescents: Literature review and case study. Environmental research, 164, 149-157.
Liu, J., Riesch, S., Tien, J., Lipman, T., Pinto-Martin, J., & O'Sullivan, A. (2021). Screen media overuse and associated physical, cognitive, and emotional/behavioral outcomes in children and adolescents: an integrative review. Journal of Pediatric Health Care.Suggate,
Martin, K., Porritt, K., & Aromataris, E. (2018). Effectiveness of interventions to control screen use and children s sleep, cognitive and behavioral outcomes: A systematic review protocol. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 16(6), 1338–1345. https://doi.org/10.11124/JBISRIR-2017-003522.
McDaniel, B. T., & Radesky, J. S. (2018). Technoference: Longitudinal associations between parent technology use, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Pediatric research, 84(2), 210-218.
Merenkova, V., Elnikova, O., Faustova, I., Komlik, L., & Kolosova, I. (2021). Psychophysiological markers of students’ internet addiction in the era of digitalization. In E3S Web of Conferences (Vol. 258). EDP Sciences.
Mineshita, Y., Kim, H. K., Chijiki, H., Nanba, T., Shinto, T., Furuhashi, S., ... & Shibata, S. (2021). Screen time duration and timing: effects on obesity, physical activity, dry eyes, and learning ability in elementary school children. BMC public health, 21(1), 1-11.
Neophytou, E., Manwell, L.A. & Eikelboom, R. (2021). Effects of Excessive Screen Time on Neurodevelopment, Learning, Memory, Mental Health, and Neurodegeneration: a Scoping Review. Int J Ment Health Addiction 19, 724–744 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-019-00182-2.
Ponti, M., & Digital Health Task Force (2019). Digital media: Promoting healthy screen use in school- aged children and adolescents. Retrieved July 15, 2019, from: Canadian Paediatric Society website: https://www.cps.ca/en/documents/position/digital-media.
Radesky, J. S., & Christakis, D. A. (2016). Increased screen time: implications for early childhood development and behavior. Pediatric Clinics, 63(5), 827-839.
Ratnasari, D., & Haryanto, H. (2019). Analysis of Utilization of Gadgets as Effective Learning Media in Innovation Education to improve Student Learning Achievement. KnE Social Sciences, 460-467.
Sebastian, & Martzog, Philipp (2021). Children’s sensorimotor development in relation to screen-media usage: A two-year longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 74. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2021.101279
Sigman, A. (2017). Screen Dependency Disorders: a new challenge for child neurology. The Journal of the International Child Neurology Association (JICNA). ISSN 2410-6410. Available at: http://jicna.org/index.php/journal/article/view/67
Throuvala, M. A., Griffiths, M. D., Rennoldson, M., & Kuss, D. J. (2021). The role of recreational online activities in school-based screen time sedentary behaviour interventions for adolescents: a systematic and critical literature review. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(4), 1065-1115.
Tremblay, M. S. (2017). on behalf of SBRN Terminology Consensus Project Participants, Aubert S, Barnes JD, Saunders TJ, Carson V, et al. Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN)–Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 14(1), 75.
UK Chief Medical Officers (2019). UK chief medical officers’ physical activity guidelines. Retrieved 6 October 2019, from ttps://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_
Vohr, B. R., McGowan, E. C., Bann, C., Das, A., Higgins, R., Hintz, S., ... & Rasmussen, M. R. (2021). Association of high screen-time use with school-age cognitive, executive function, and behavior outcomes in extremely preterm children. JAMA pediatrics, 175(10), 1025-1034.
Webster, E. K., Martin, C. K., & Staiano, A. E. (2019). Fundamental motor skills, screen-time, and physical activity in preschoolers. Journal of sport and health science, 8(2), 114-121.
Wen, Y., Gwendoline, C. L. Q., & Lau, S. Y. (2021). ICT-supported home-based learning in K-12: A systematic review of research and implementation. TechTrends, 65(3), 371-378.
Yan, H., Zhang, R., Oniffrey, T. M., Chen, G., Wang, Y., Wu, Y., ... & Moore, J. B. (2017). Associations among screen time and unhealthy behaviors, academic performance, and well-being in Chinese adolescents. International journal of environmental research and public health, 14(6), 596.
Zhou, S., Zhao, C., Huang, X., Li, Z., Ye, R., Shi, H., ... & Scherpbier, R. W. (2019). The effect of a community-based, integrated and nurturing care intervention on early childhood development in rural China. Public Health, 167, 125-135.
Copyright (c) 2022 Digital Education Review
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication.
- The texts published in Digital Education Review, DER, are under a license Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4,0 Spain, of Creative Commons. All the conditions of use in: Creative Commons,
In order to mention the works, you must give credit to the authors and to this Journal.
Digital Education Review, DER, does not accept any responsibility for the points of view and statements made by the authors in their work.