Virtual Communities in Blended Learning: Cases Study at @rcaComum

Pilar Ibáñez-Cubillas, Maribel Santos Miranda Pinto, António Osório


In virtual communities, Community of Inquiry (CoI) is one of the most developed, collaborative and constructivist approaches amongst scientific studies on e-learning. The objective of this research is to analyse the existence of social, cognitive and teaching presence and examine the cognitive presence in a b-learning model. It follows a qualitative methodology based on studies, conducted with 97 educators, enrolled on four, part time training courses offered by @rcaComum about programming with ScratchJr. The content of these forums was analysed according to the CoI. model, obtaining 1,206 messages, categorized and coded in 1,895 themed units. The results are led by the teaching presence, with the moderator using a proactive role towards teaching. Social presence is based on open communication, while cognitive presence is marked by messages of confusion and the recognition of problems. It is concluded that the social and cognitive factors that intervene in hybrid training, question the value of the CoI model. The implications of the CoI instruction approach in a mixed learning model are discussed and recommendations for future research are included.


Community of Inquiry; virtual communities; professional development; forum; childhood

Full Text:

PDF (Español)


Al-Samarraie, H., Teng, B. K., Alzahrani, A. I., & Alalwan, N. (2017). E-learning continuance satisfaction in higher education: a unified perspective from instructors and students. Studies in Higher Education, 1-17. DOI: Amemado, D., & Manca, S. (2017). Learning from decades of online distance education: MOOCs and the Community of Inquiry framework. Journal of e-Learning and Knowledge Society, 13(2). DOI: Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the Community of Inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (IRRODL), 12, 5. article/view/924/1855. Armellini, A., & De Stefani, M. (2016). Social presence in the 21st century: An adjustment to the Community of Inquiry framework. British Journal of Educational Technology, 47(6), 1202-1216. DOI: Berry, S. (2017). Building community in online doctoral classrooms: instructor practices that support community. Online Learning, 21(2). DOI: Chan, B. S., Churchill, D., & Chiu, T. K. (2017). Digital literacy learning in higher education through digital storytelling approach. Journal of International Education Research (JIER), 13(1), 1-16. DOI: Chen, B., deNoyelles, A., Patton, K. & Zydney, J. (2017). Creating a community of inquiry in large-enrollment online courses: An exploratory study on the effect of protocols within online discussions. Online Learning, 21(1). DOI: Chen, W. S., & Yao, A. Y. T. (2016). An empirical evaluation of critical factors influencing learner satisfaction in blended learning: a pilot study. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 4(7), 1667-1671. DOI: Cho, M. H., Kim, Y., & Choi, D. (2017). The effect of self-regulated learning on college students' perceptions of community of inquiry and affective outcomes in online learning. The Internet and Higher Education, 34, 10-17. DOI: Choy, J. L. F., & Quek, C. L. (2016). Modelling relationships between students' academic achievement and community of inquiry in an online learning environment for a blended course. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(4). DOI: Coll,C., Rochera, M.J., Gispert, I., & Díaz-Barriga, F. (2013). Distribution of Feedback among Teacher and Students in Online Collaborative Learning in Small Groups. Digital Education Review, 23, 27-45. Fueyo, A., & Hevia, I. (2017). Aprendizaje en red mediante comunidades de indagación en entornos de formación masiva online. Digital Education Review, 31, 116-130. Garrison, D.R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: social, cognitive and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61-72. Garrison, D.R. & Anderson, T. (2005). El e-learning en el siglo XXI. Barcelona: Octaedro. Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1-2), 5–9. DOI: Garrison, D. R., Cleveland-Innes, M., & Fung, T. S. (2010). Exploring causal relationships among teaching, cognitive and social presence: Student perceptions of the community of inquiry framework. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1), 31–36. González Compeán, J. L., Van’t Hooft, A., Carretero Pérez, J., & Flores Martínez, L. (2017). La introducción de la lengua huasteca a Internet. Una estrategia para crear comunidades virtuales en lenguas amerindias. Comunicación y Sociedad, (28). Kozan, K. (2016). The incremental predictive validity of teaching, cognitive and social presence on cognitive load. The Internet and Higher Education, 31, 11-19. Doi: Martínez, E. P., & Sánchez-Caballé, A. (2017). La integración de las redes sociales para el desarrollo de la competencia digital en la educación superior. Universitas Tarraconensis. Revista de Ciències de l'Educació, 1(1), 50-65. DOI: Matthews, J. C. (2016). Historical inquiry in an informal fan community: Online source usage and the TV show The Tudors. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 25(1), 4-50. DOI: Autor/a. (2017). Autor/a. (2012). Autor/a. (2010). Rheingold, H. (1996). La comunidad virtual: una sociedad sin fronteras. Barcelona: Gedisa. Rockinson-Szapkiw, A., Wendt, J., Whighting, M., & Nisbet, D. (2016). The predictive relationship among the community of inquiry framework, perceived learning and online, and graduate students’ course grades in online synchronous and asynchronous courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3). Recovered from; Stewart, M. K. (2017). Communities of Inquiry: A Heuristic for Designing and Assessing Interactive Learning Activities in Technology-Mediated FYC. Computers and Composition, 45, 67-84. DOI: Vizcaíno-Laorga, R., Vozmediano, M. M., & de la Torre, P. (2017). Tocando la realidad en la producción de contenidos informativos, rutinas profesionales y participación en entornos digitales. Revista Prisma Social, (18), 192-225. Watson, S. L., Watson, W. R., Richardson, J., & Loizzo, J. (2016). Instructor’s use of social presence, teaching presence, and attitudinal dissonance: A case study of an attitudinal change MOOC. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(3). Yang, S. H. (2016). Conceptualizing effective feedback practice through an online community of inquiry. Computers & Education, 94, 162-177. DOI: Zheng, B., & Warschauer, M. (2017). Epilogue: Second language writing in the age of computer-mediated communication. Journal of Second Language Writing, 36, 61-67. DOI:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Licencia Creative Commons

ISSN 2013-9144


RCUB Avís Legal RCUB Universitat de Barcelona