Medidas de salud pública y estigma

Fernando García, Miguel Ángel Royo Bordonada

Resumen


Muchas medidas de salud pública pueden tener un impacto mayor en determinadas clases o grupos sociales desfavorecidos. Esto puede atenuar, al menos temporalmente, las desigualdades sociales en salud, en la medida en que estos grupos tienen una prevalencia mayor de las condiciones que las medidas de salud pública quieren afrontar, pero también puede estigmatizarlos, lo que a la larga conduciría a exacerbar de nuevo las inequidades en salud. Se describen los conceptos de clase social, clasismo y estigma. Se analizan distintas corrientes de pensamiento que han concebido el papel del estigma dentro de la salud pública. Se acepta que en condiciones excepcionales se pueden defender algunas medidas de salud pública con ciertos efectos estigmatizantes como consecuencia indeseada, pero nunca de forma deliberada, como componente nuclear o exclusivo de la intervención. Por último, se comentan varias condiciones que deben cumplirse para evitar o minimizar el estigma en las actuaciones de la salud pública: la participación de las clases y grupos sociales involucrados en la toma de decisión; la supervisión ética independiente; rehuir la individualización de los problemas de salud pública y poner el énfasis en que son problemas predominantemente colectivos; la compensación suficiente a las personas y grupos perjudicados; y el esfuerzo por afrontar y corregir las causas profundas y estructurales de las desigualdades en salud.

Palabras clave


salud pública; clases sociales; estigma; discriminación; deliberación democrática; supervisión ética; ética en la salud pública; tabaco

Texto completo:

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Referencias


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1344/rbd2019.0.27795

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