Animalidad y discapacidad: mapa teórico de (des)ajustes

Autores/as

Resumen

En este artículo partimos de los estudios de discapacidad, de animalidad y de bioética, con aportes de la filosofía moral y política, para trazar un mapa integral de perspectivas teóricas sobre el encuentro entre animalidad y discapacidad. Son establecidos tres caminos de análisis, basados ​​en argumentos divergentes: el de la comparación; el del cuidado y la dignidad; y el de ciudadanía y opresión común. En la revisión de literatura, primero nos ocupamos de los fundamentos de las teorías antiespecistas y poshumanistas, basadas en la comparación de las características y experiencias de los animales no humanos y las personas con discapacidad. Luego, evaluamos cómo se interpretó el enunciado neoaristotélico de reconocimiento de la animalidad humana para apoyar las nociones de vulnerabilidad y dignidad animal, respectivamente, en la teoría del cuidado y en el enfoque de las capacidades. Finalmente, abordamos el reconocimiento de la ciudadanía y la opresión común a la cual son sometidas las personas con discapacidad y los animales no humanos, como generadores, por un lado, de una concepción renovada de ciudadanía y, por otro, del establecimiento de la teoría eco-crip. Seguimos una estructura dialéctica, basada en la exposición de defensas y críticas a los argumentos presentados. Nuestra metodología se basó en una revisión de literatura, con un enfoque hipotético-deductivo. El estudio tiene un carácter eminentemente teórico. Su contribución debe consistir en proporcionar una descripción general de los marcos desde los que es posible abordar conjuntamente la discapacidad y la animalidad no humana.

Biografía del autor/a

Luana Adriano Adriano Araújo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Doutoranda em Direito no Programa de Pós-Graduação da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (2019-atual). Editora Adjunta da Revista Teoria Jurídica Contemporânea - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ (2019-atual). Mestre em Direito Constitucional pela Universidade Federal do Ceará (2016-2018).

Citas

Albersmeier, F. (2014). In Defence of Extinctionism. In Les ateliers de l'éthique/The Ethics Forum (Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 68-88). Centre de recherche en éthique de l’Université de Montréal.

Anderson, E. (2004). Animal rights and the values of nonhuman life. En Cass, S., Nussbaum, M. (Eds.) Animal Rights. New York: Oxford University Press.

Braidotti, R. (2013). The posthuman. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

Braidotti, R. (2019). A theoretical framework for the critical posthumanities. Theory, Culture & Society, 36(6), 31-61.

Bostrom, N., & Savulescu, J. (2009). Human Enhancement Ethics: The State of the Debate. In: Bostrom, N., & Savulescu, J. (Eds.). Human Enhancement. New York: Oxford University Press.

Butler, J. (2015). Quadros de guerra: quando a vida é passível de luto. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira.

Carlson, L. (2009). The faces of intellectual disability: Philosophical reflections. Bloogminton: Indiana University Press.

Carlson, L. (2010). Philosophers of intellectual disability: A taxonomy. En Kittay, E., Carlson, L. (Eds.). Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Clark, J. P. (2009). Capabilities theory and the limits of liberal justice: On Nussbaum’s Frontiers of Justice. Human Rights Review, 10(4), 583.

Crary, A. (2016). Inside ethics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Crary, A. (2018). The horrific history of comparisons between cognitive disability and animality (and how to move past it). In: Adams, C. J., Rapsey-Probyn, F. (Eds.). Animaladies: Gender, Animals, and Madness. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Crescenzo, D. (2012). The problem of predator-prey relations and predator flourishing in Nussbaum’s capabilities approach to justice. Environmental Ethics, 34(2), 177-197.

Cuenca Gómez, P. (2012). Sobre la inclusión de la discapacidad en la teoría de los derechos humanos. Revista de Estudios Políticos (Nueva Época). Madrid, (158), oct-dic, 103-137.

Gómez, P. C. (2016). Derechos humanos y discapacidad: de la renovación del discurso justificatorio al reconocimiento de nuevos derechos. Anuario de filosofía del derecho, (32), 53-83.

De Waal, F. B. (1999). Anthropomorphism and anthropodenial: consistency in our thinking about humans and other animals. Philosophical Topics, 27(1), 255-280.

Donovan, J., & Adams, C. J. (Eds.). (2007). The feminist care tradition in animal ethics: A reader. New York: Columbia University Press.

Francis, L. P., & Silvers, A. (2007). Liberalism and individually scripted ideas of the good: Meeting the challenge of dependent agency. Social Theory and Practice, 33(2), 311-334.

Francione, G. L. (2009). Animals as persons: Essays on the abolition of animal exploitation. New York: Columbia University Press.

Francione, G. (2010). The abolition of animal exploitation. En: Francione, G., Garner, R. The animal rights debate: Abolition or regulation, New York: Columbia University Press, 1-102.

Goodley, D., Lawthom, R., & Cole, K. R. (2014). Posthuman disability studies. Subjectivity, 7(4), 342-361.

Gruen, L., Rapsey-Probyn, F. (2018) Distillations. En Adams, C. J; Rapsey-Probyn, F. (Eds.). Animaladies: Gender, Animals, and Madness. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Horta, O. (2010). What is speciesism?. Journal of agricultural and environmental ethics, 23(3), 243-266.

Kant, I. (2015) Fundamentação da Metafísica dos Costumes. Trad. Paulo Quintela. Lisboa: Edições 70.

KIttAY, E. V. A. F.(1999): Love’s Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency. New York: Routledge.

Kittay, E. F. (2011). The ethics of care, dependence, and disability. Ratio Juris, 24(1), 49-58.

Kittay, E. F. (2005). At the margins of moral personhood. Ethics, 116(1), 100-131.

Kittay, E. F., Carlson, L. (2010) Introduction: Rethinking Philosophical Presumptions in Light of Cognitive Disability. Kittay, E., Carlson, L. (Eds.). Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kuhse, H., Singer, P., & Singer, P. (1985). Should the baby live?: The problem of handicapped infants (Vol. 138). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kymlicka, W. (1998). Finding our way: Rethinking ethnocultural relations in Canada (Vol. 19). Toronto: Oxford university press.

Donaldson, S., & Kymlicka, W. (2011). Zoopolis: A political theory of animal rights. Oxford University Press.

Kymlicka, W., & Donaldson, S. (2014). Animal rights, multiculturalism, and the left. Journal of Social Philosophy, 45(1), 116-135.

Donaldson, S., & Kymlicka, W. (2016). Rethinking membership and participation in an inclusive democracy: Cognitive disability, children, animals. Disability and political theory, 168-197.

Donaldson, S., & Kymlicka, W. (2017). Animals in Political Theory. The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies, Oxford University Press.

Lee, T. M. L. (2006). Multicultural citizenship: The case of the disabled. Critical disability theory: Essays in philosophy, politics, policy, and law, 87-105.

Linett, M. T. (2020). Literary Bioethics: Animality, Disability, and the Human (Vol. 3). New York: NYU Press.

Lion, V. (2020). Disrupting Temple Grandin: Resisting a “humane” face for autistic and animal oppression. In Disability and Animality (pp. 182-211). Routledge.

MacIntyre, A. C. (1999). Dependent rational animals: Why human beings need the virtues (Vol. 20). Chicago: Open Court Publishing.

MacIntyre, A. C. (2006) After virtue: a study in moral theory. 3. ed. London: University of Notre Dame Press.

Mackenzie, C., Rogers, W., & Dodds, S. (Eds.). (2014). Vulnerability: New essays in ethics and feminist philosophy. Oxford University Press.

Maskos, R. (2020) Posthuman risks? Some thoughts on posthuman disability studies and ‘strategic humanism’. In: Atkinson, R.; Goodley, D. (Eds.) Humanity under duress. Sheffield: Multitude Press.

McMahan, J. (1996). Cognitive disability, misfortune, and justice. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 25(1), 3-35.

McMahan, J. (2002). The ethics of killing: Problems at the margins of life. Oxford University Press, USA.

McMahan, J. (2008). Challenges to human equality. The Journal of Ethics, 12(1), 81-104.

McMahan, J. (2009). Radical Cognitive Limitation, Disability and Disadvantage. En: Brownlee, K., Cureton, A. (Eds.). Disability and disadvantage. New York: Oxford University Press.

McMahan, J. (2010). Cognitive Disability and Cognitive Enhancement. En Kittay, E., Carlson, L. (Eds.). Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Monroe, H. (2018). Ableism, speciesism, animals and autism: The devaluation of interspecies friendships. Animaladies: Gender, Animals, and Madness, 89-99.

MONROE, Hannah. Ableism, speciesism animals and autism: the devaluation of interspecies friendship. En Adams, C. J; Rapsey-Probyn, F. (Eds.). Animaladies: Gender, Animals, and Madness. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

NUSBAUMM, M. (2013). Fronteiras da justiça: deficiência, nacionalidade, pertencimento à espécie. Trad. Susana de Castro. São Paulo: WMF Martins Fontes.

NUSBAUMM, M. (2001). Animal rights: The need for a theoretical basis: Review of Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Harvard Law Review, 114.

Nussbaum, M. C. (2004). Beyond 'compassion and humanity': justice for nonhuman animals. En Cass, S., Nussbaum, M. (Eds.) Animal Rights. New York: Oxford University Press.

Passantino, A., Fenga, C., Morciano, C., Morelli, C., Russo, M., Di, C. P., & Passantino, M. (2006). Euthanasia of companion animals: a legal and ethical analysis. Annali dell'Istituto superiore di sanità, 42(4), 491-495.

Patsavas, A. (2014). Recovering a cripistemology of pain. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 8(2), 203-219.

Puar, J. K. (2012). “I would rather be a cyborg than a goddess”: Becoming-intersectional in assemblage theory. PhiloSOPHIA, 2(1), 49-66.

Rawls, J. (1997) Uma teoria de Justiça. Trad. Almiro Pisetta e Lenitta M. R. Esteves. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.

Rawls, J. (2000) O liberalismo político. Trad. Dinah de A. Azevedo. 2. ed. São Paulo: Ática.

Rawls, J. (2001) O Direito dos Povos. São Paulo: Martins Fontes.

Reilly, J. S. (Ed.). (2001). Euthanasia of animals used for scientific purposes. Anzccart.

Rock, M. J., & Degeling, C. (2015). Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity. Social Science & Medicine, 129, 61-67.

Shakespeare, T. (2014). Disability rights and wrongs revisited. 2 ed. Londres, Nova York: Routledge, 2014.

Scotton, G. (2018). Metaphors and maladies: Against psychologizing speciesism. En Adams, C. J; Rapsey-Probyn, F. (Eds.). Animaladies: Gender, Animals, and Madness. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing USA.

Schinkel, A. (2008). Martha Nussbaum on animal rights. Ethics and the Environment, 41-69.

Silvers, A., & Francis, L. P. (2005). Justice through trust: Disability and the “outlier problem” in social contract theory. Ethics, 116(1), 40-76.

Singer, P. (1974) All animals are equal. Philosophic Exchange, 5 (1), 1974.

Singer, P. (1993). Practical ethics. 2. Ed. Cambridge: Cambridge university press.

Singer, P. (1996). Rethinking life and death: The collapse of our traditional ethics. Macmillan.

Singer, P. (2009). Animal Liberation: the definitive classic of the animal liberation movement. New York: Open Road, 2009.

Singer, P. (2010). Speciesism and moral status. En Kittay, E., Carlson, L. (Eds.). Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.

Taylor, S. (2013). Vegans, freaks, and animals: Toward a new table fellowship. American Quarterly, 65(3), 757-764.

Taylor, S. (2017). Beasts of burden: Animal and disability liberation. The New Press.

Taylor, A. (2013). An Interview with Sue Donaldson and Will Kymlicka. Between the species, 17(1), 8.

Turner, P., Berry, J., & MacDonald, S. (2012). Animal shelters and animal welfare: Raising the bar. The Canadian Veterinary Journal, 53(8), 893.

Vehmas, S. (2004). Dimensions of disability. Cambridge Q. Healthcare Ethics, 13, 34.

Vehmas, S., & Watson, N. (2016). Exploring normativity in disability studies. Disability & Society, 31(1), 1-16.

Wasserman, D., Asch, A., Blustein, J., & Putnam, D. (2012). Cognitive disability and moral status. En: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

White, T. I. (2013). Humans and dolphins: An exploration of anthropocentrism in applied environmental ethics. Journal of Animal Ethics, 3(1), 85-99.

Wolfe, C. (2010) What is posthumanism?. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Publicado

2021-10-28

Número

Sección

Perspectivas Bioéticas