The Effects of Images on Multiple-choice Questions in Computer-based Formative Assessment


  • Juan-Fernando Martín-SanJosé Universitat Politècnica de València
  • María Carmen Juan Lizandra Universitat Politècnica de València
  • Roberto Vivó Universitat Politècnica de València
  • Francisco Abad Universitat Politècnica de València



Evaluation methodologies· Interactive Learning Environments · Media in Education · Improving Classroom Teaching · Multimedia Systems


Current learning and assessment are evolving into digital systems that can be used, stored, and processed online. In this paper, three different types of questionnaires for assessment are presented. All the questionnaires were filled out online on a web-based format. A study was carried out to determine whether the use of images related to each question in the questionnaires affected the selection of the correct answer. Three questionnaires were used: two questionnaires with images (images used during learning and images not used during learning) and another questionnaire with no images, text-only. Ninety-four children between seven and eight years old participated in the study. The comparison of the scores obtained on the pre-test and on the post-test indicates that the children increased their knowledge after the training, which demonstrates that the learning method is effective. When the post-test scores for the three types of questionnaires were compared, statistically significant differences were found in favour of the two questionnaires with images versus the text-only questionnaire. No statistically significant differences were found between the two types of questionnaires with images. Therefore, to a great extent, the use of images in the questionnaires helps students to select the correct answer. Since this encourages students, adding images to the questionnaires could be a good strategy for formative assessment.







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