What are teens doing with media? An ethnographic approach for identifying transmedia skills and informal learning strategies

Carlos A. Scolari, Elisenda Ardèvol, Òliver Pérez-Latorre, Maria-Jose Masanet, Nohemi Lugo Rodríguez

Abstract


The emergence of new media, devices, narratives and practices has compelled media literacy scholars and professionals to review their theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches. Based on a new conception – ‘transmedia literacy’ – that moves from traditional media literacy to informal learning and participatory cultures practices, the research program behind the present article tries to understand how new generations are doing things with media outside schools and how they learnt to do the things they do. The article begins by describing the transformations of media literacy in recent years as a consequence of the mutations of the media ecology and, in that context, proposes a methodological approachfor analysing the acquisition of transmedia skills in informal learning environments by teens. The article describes, analyses and evaluates the development and initial implementation of this methodology working with teenagers in a high-school in NAME CITY. It ends with a Research Kit that includes surveys, creative workshops, interactive interviews and media diaries with teens between 12-18 years old. The article also describes the evolution of this methodological approach from its original formulation to the evaluation of the model after it was tested, and reflects on the possibilities of developing specific research devices to be applied in transnational research.

Keywords


Transmedia literacy; media literacy; ethnography; transmedia skills; informal learning strategies

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agud, I., Novella Cámara, A. M., & Llena Berñe, A. (2014). Conditions for Effective Children’s Participation, according to Children’s Voices. Revista de Cercetare Si Interventie Sociala, 46: 9–21.

Ardèvol, E. (2017). Kit for field researchers. Barcelona. Retrieved from https://repositori.upf.edu/handle/10230/33909

Bayre, F., Harper, K., & Alfonso, A. I. (2016). Participatory approaches to visual ethnography from the digital to the handmade. an introduction. Visual Ethnography, 5(1): 5–13.

boyd, d. (2014). It’s Complicated: the social lives of networked teens. London / New Haven: Yale University Press.

Bray, L. (2007). Interviewing children and young people. Journal of Research in Nursing, 12(5): 447–457.

Bruns, A. (2008). Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Buckingham, D. (1993). Towards new literacies, information technology. The English and Media Magazine, Summer, pp. 20-25.

Buckingham, D. (2006). Defining digital literacy. What do young people need to know about digital media?. Digital Komptanse, 4(1): 263-276.

Castells, M. (2007). Estudiar, ¿para qué? (To study, What for?). La Vanguardia, 24/11/2007.

Davis, C. A. (2008). Reflexive ethnography: A guide to researching selves and others. London & New York: Routledge.

Dicks, B., Soyinka, B., & Coffey, A. (2006). Multimodal ethnography. Qualitative Research, 6(1):77-96. Doi: 10.1177/1468794106058876

EAVI/DTI/OII (EAVI, Danish Tech Institute, Oxford Internet Institute) (2011). Testing and Refining Criteria to Assess Media Literacy Levels in Europe Final Report. URL: http://ec.europa.eu/culture/media/media-content/media-literacy/studies/final-report-ml-study-2011.pdf

Ferrer, J., Ardèvol, E., & Parés, N. (2016). Ethnography and the quest to (co)design a mixed reality interactive slide. In S. Pink, E. Ardèvol, & D. Lanzeni (Eds.), Digital Materialities. Design and Anthropology (pp. 115–136). London and New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Ferrés, J., & Piscitelli, A. (2012). Media Competence. Articulated Proposal of Dimensions and Indicators. Comunicar, 19(38), 75–82. https://doi.org/10.3916/C38-2012-02-08

Guillemin, M., & Gillam, L. (2004). Ethics, Reflexivity, and “Ethically Important Moments” in Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 10(2): 261-280.

Hargittai, E. (2002, April). Second-level digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills. First Monday, 7(4). URL: http://firstmonday.org

Haythornthwaite, C. (2007). Social facilitators and inhibitors to online fluency. Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Science, Waikoloa, HI, 3–6 January.

Hine, C. M. (2000). Virtual Ethnography. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

Horst, H. A.; Herr-Stephenson, B., & Robinson, L. (2010). Media Ecologies. In M. Mizuco et al (2010). Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. Cambridge (MA): The MIT Press, pp. 29-77.

Jenkins, H. (2006). Convergence Culture. New York: NYU Press.

Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21stCentury, Chicago (IL): MacArthur Foundation.

Knobel, M., & Lankshear, C. (2008). Digital literacy and participation in online social networking space. In: Lankshear C and Knobel M (eds) Digital Literacies, Concepts, Policies and Practices. New York: Peter Lang, pp. 249–278.

Kozinetz, R. (2009). Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

Lange, P., & Ito, M. (2010). Creative production. In M. Ito et al (2010). Hanging Out, Messing Around, and Geeking Out: Kids Living and Learning with New Media. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, pp. 243-293.

Leander, K. M. (2008). Toward a connective ethnography of online/offline literacy networks. In: Coiro J, Knobel M, Lankshear C, et al (eds) Handbook of Research on New Literacies. New York: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, pp. 33–65.

Lin, Tzu-Bin., Jen-Yi Li, Feng Deng, & Ling Lee (2013). Understanding New Media Literacy: An Explorative Theoretical Framework. Educational Technology & Society, 16 (4):160–170.

Livingstone, S. (2004). What is media literacy?. InterMedia, 32(3): 18–20.

Livingstone, S., & Haddon, L. (2009). EU kids online: Final report. London: London School of Economics and Political Science; EU Kids Online. https://goo.gl/kTYWcK

Loi, D., & Dillon, P. (2006). Adaptive educational environments as creative spaces Adaptive educational environments as creative spaces. Cambridge Journal of Education, 36(3): 363–381.

Lugo Rodríguez, N. (2016). Diseño de narrativas transmedia para la transalfabetización. Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Retrieved from https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/396131#page=1

Manovich L. (2009). The Practice of Everyday (Media) Life: From Mass Consumption to Mass Cultural Production? Critical Inquiry, 35(2): 319-331.

Masanet, M.-J., Guerrero-Pico, M., & Establés, M.-J. (2019). From digital native to digital apprentice. A case study of the transmedia skills and informal learning strategies of adolescents in Spain. Learning, Media and Technology, 44(4), 403–413. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439884.2019.1641513

Meyers, E., Erickson, I., & Small, R. (2013). Digital literacy and informal learning environments: An introduction. Learning, Media and Technology 38(4): 355-367. doi: 10.1080/17439884.2013.783597.

Papacharissi, Z. (ed.)(2010). A Networked Self: Identity, Community, and Culture on Social Network Sites. New York: Routledge.

Phelan, S. K., & Kinsella, E. A. (2013). Picture This . . . Safety, Dignity, and Voice — Ethical Research With Children: Practical Considerations for the Reflexive Researcher. Qualitative Inquiry, 19(2): 81–90.

Pink, S. (2014). Digital-visual-sensory-design anthropology: Ethnography, imagination and intervention. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 13(4): 412–427.

Pink, S., & Ardèvol, E. (2018). Ethnographic Strategies for Revealing Teens’ Transmedia Skills and Practices. In C. A. Scolari (Ed.), Teens, Media and Collaborative Cultures. Exploiting Teens’ Transmedia Skills in the Classroom (pp. 108–117). Barcelona: Transmedia Literacy H2020 Research and Innovation Action/Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

Pink, S., & Morgan, J. (2013). Short-term ethnography: intense routes to knowing. Simbolic Interaction, 36(3): 351–361.

Potosky, D. (2007). The internet knowledge (iKnow) measure. Computers in Human Behavior 23(6): 337–348.

Scolari, C. A. (2008). Hipermediaciones: elementos para una teoría de la comunicación digital interactiva. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Scolari, C. A. (2009). Mapping conversations about new media: the theoretical field of digital communication. New Media & Society, 11(6), 943–964. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809336513

Scolari, C. A. (2016). Alfabetismo transmedia. Estrategias de aprendizaje informal y competencias mediáticas en la nueva ecología de la comunicación. Telos, 103, 13–23.

Scolari, C. A. (Ed.). (2018). Teens, Media and Collaborative Cultures. Exploiting Teens’ Transmedia Skills in the Classroom. Barcelona: Transmedia Literacy. H2020 Research and Innovation Action/Universitat Pompeu Fabra.

Scolari, C. A. (2019). Beyond the myth of the ‘digital native’. Adolescents, collaborative cultures and transmedia skills. Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 14(3–4), 164–174. https://doi.org/10.18261/issn.1891-943x-2019-03-04-06

Sefton-Green, J. (2006). Report 7. Literature Review in Informal Learning with Technology Outside School. London: Future Media Lab.

Solon, O. (2017, February 14). Disney severs ties with YouTube star PewDiePie over antisemitic videos. The Guardian. Retrieved from

https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/feb/13/pewdiepie-youtube-star-disney-antisemitic-videos

Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave: The classic study of tomorrow. New York: Bantam.

van Deursen, A., & van Dijk, J. (2010). Internet skills and the digital divide. New Media & Society 13(6): 893–911.

van Dijk, J. (2005). The Deepening Divide. Inequality in The Information Society. London: Sage.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press




DOI: https://doi.org/10.1344/der.2020.37.269-287

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Licencia Creative Commons

ISSN 2013-9144

 

RCUB revistesub@ub.edu Avís Legal RCUB Universitat de Barcelona