Blended Learning Researches in Iran: Several Fundamental Criticisms


  • Farhad Seraji faculty member of Bu Ali Sina University
  • Muhammad Attaran DepartmentofCurriculumandInstructionalTechnology,FacultyofEducation,UniversityofMalaya,50603KualaLumpur,MALAYSIA
  • Seyyed Mohsen Azizi PhD. In Distance Education Planning, Clinical Research Development Center of Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran



blended learning, research, criticisms, terminology, methodology, blended levels


The present study seeks to critically review the state of the blended learning researches in the Iranian context. For this critique, 47 papers about blended learning were found in a number of indexing databases and their contents were analyzed. The contents mainly revolved around use of relevant terminology, features of blended learning, methodology, levels of blended learning, variables of the study, and the analyzed educational programs. Some major criticisms that can be leveled at these studies include limited range of terminology, inappropriate use of key concepts, overemphasis on quantitative methods, overuse of pseudo-empirical method, lack of case studies, mistaking blended learning for application of computers in education, excessive concentration on the level of educational programs, superficial treatment of the distinction between learning and retaining, lack of attention to some of the variables of blended learning, and use of blended learning for primary and secondary education.

Author Biography

Farhad Seraji, faculty member of Bu Ali Sina University

Associate Professor of Curriculum


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